Ancient Rome refers to the civilization that rose in the middle of the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the 9th century BC. Ancient Rome has experienced the Roman Empire (753-509 BC), the Roman Republic (509–27 BC), and the Roman Empire (previously). 27～476/1453) three stages.
Wang Zheng era
According to legend, when the city of Troy was attacked by the Greeks (approximately 1300-1190 BC), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus, and his followers escaped and traveled westward across North Africa through Carthage. Came to ancient Italy. At that time, there was Latium in Italy, and King Latinos ruled. Aeneas defeated Turnus and established the kingdom (Alba). Later, his descendant Romulus established Rome and established the foundation of Rome Mundus Trench as the first king. Later, a parliamentary system was established, which was called the Republican Era.
From the 5th century BC to the beginning of the 3rd century BC, the struggle between commoners and nobles came to an end, and the Italian peninsula was basically unified. The Centennial Conference elected two consuls from among the nobles to exercise the highest administrative power for a period of one year; the senate holds the real power of the country. As the antagonism between the nobles and the civilians deepened, the nobles recognized the “guardians” chosen by the civilians and were responsible for protecting the power of the civilians from being violated by the aristocracy. In 451 BC, the Twelve Bronze Table Law was promulgated to abolish the restriction that commoners and nobles could not marry, which also marked the birth of Roman Law. In 326 BC, debt slavery was abolished.
When Rome was first founded, it was still a small country. Since the beginning of the 5th century BC, it has successively defeated some cities in the Latin League and its neighbors such as the Etruscans, and conquered the indigenous and Greek city-states in the southern Italian peninsula, and became a major power in the western Mediterranean. Rome launched 3 more Punic Wars and conquered Carthage and made it a province of Rome in 146 BC. From 215 BC to 168 BC, three Macedonian wars were launched to conquer Macedonia and control the whole of Greece. Through the Syrian war and diplomatic means, it controlled parts of West Asia and built a large country that straddles Africa, Europe, and Asia, and dominates the Mediterranean.
The economy developed rapidly during this period, but it also intensified social contradictions. From the 2030s to the 130s BC, known as the Civil War era, the Sicilian Slave Uprising and the Spartak Uprising broke out successively. The struggle between the bankrupt peasants and the big landlords, the struggle between the powerless and those in power, and the struggle between the knights and the veterans were formed. And in 133 years before 123 years ago, the Gracchu brothers reform took place. In 107 BC, with the support of the democrats, Mallius was elected as the governor and began to implement military reforms. He promoted the recruitment system, so that a large number of landless or few citizens poured into the army.
In the first 90 years, in order to fight for Roman citizenship, the Italians rebelled, known as the War of the Allies in history. In 82 BC, Sula, supported by the aristocratic faction, led an army to occupy Rome. The following year, the National Assembly was forced to elect him as dictator for life, setting a precedent for military dictatorship in Roman history. In the first 60 years, Crassus, Caesar, and Pompeo secretly formed an alliance to jointly control the political situation in Rome, which is known as the top three politics in history. In the first 48 years, Julius Caesar fought in Krasu and defeated two others and was declared a life-long dictator, combining military and political power. He enforced reforms, but because of his dictatorship, he incurred hostility from political enemies. He was assassinated by aristocratic conspirators on March 15, 44 BC.
After Caesar’s death, the Roman Civil War broke out again. In the first 43 years, Anthony, Lepida, and Octavian formed an open alliance and obtained the legal power to rule the country for five years, which is known as the latter three politics in history. Then Octavian defeated the other two, and in 27 BC, the Senate awarded Octavian the title of “Augustus” and established the head of state politics. The republic is declared dead. Rome has since entered the age of the Roman Empire.