Buddhism and Buddhism
Many people think that Buddhism is not easy to understand, because there are too many specialized nouns, too many classics, too many books, too many factions about teaching and thinking, and those who first entered Buddhism are quite eager to know what to do. Difficulties. Even for scholars specializing in Buddhism, it is difficult to find a few people who are proficient in all Buddhism and have no doubt. Therefore, the word Buddhism is indeed an esoteric study for the average person.
In fact, the Dharma that our lord Shakyamuni Buddha preached was a way of telling us how to become a Buddha. His purpose is to hope that all people can learn according to the methods he teaches. He does not want his teachings to be regarded as a system of philosophy. Of course, he does not want scholars to regard the Dharma he has proved as An academic, put it in the research room and the library, let people study it in a scientific way. Therefore, from the fundamental point of Buddhism, only Buddhism is studied, and there is no Buddhism. Studying Buddhism is the purpose of Buddhism. Only when you study Buddhism, there is the possibility of becoming a saint and becoming a Buddha. Buddhism is a humanistic science of research. It can tell us the evolution of Buddhism in form and geography, and In the development of ideology, that is, the history and teaching history of Buddhism are analyzed and examined from various angles, and it is regarded as the archaeology, sociology, literature and philosophy of Buddhism. It does not have the belief to persuade people. And the responsibility of practice.
What ordinary people say is that Buddhism is difficult to understand, it should refer to Buddhism, not to Buddhism. Because, at the time, Sakyamuni Buddha’s Dharma that he had declared to his brothers, if it was difficult to understand, his education could not be spread to all walks of life. Even now, from the more primitive Buddhist scriptures, we can still appreciate that the teachings of the Buddha of Sakyamuni are quite simple and closely related to the life behavior of ordinary people. Therefore, I dare to say to you that learning Buddha is easy to understand. What everyone thinks is difficult to understand is Buddhism. Everything has a long history, and there must be more and more things piled up on it. Cleaning up these deposits is an esoteric study. If you want to find the simplest and most fundamental, The most succinct way to let everyone practice is to learn the work of the Buddha. However, it is not ordinary people who can do this. This is our responsibility as a mage. The mage should find out the easy way to learn Buddha from the difficult Buddhist studies to tell the masses and Buddhists.
Therefore, we must find out that although Buddhism is difficult, it is easy to learn Buddhism. Although the study of Buddhism is not the purpose of teaching Buddhism, it is still worthy of encouragement to stand on the cultural standpoint and to conduct academic research on Buddhism. For the majority of believers, the Buddhist scriptures are not for you to study, but to teach you to practice according to it; practicing the teachings of the Buddha is called learning Buddha.
Learning to become a Buddha
Buddhism, of course, is not a materialistic religion, but an atheistic religion. Unlike other monotheistic religions, although there are various lessons for moral life, it is to seek God’s care and relief, and believers follow the revelation of the so-called gods because they believe in the classics they believe in. God is the only, supreme, supreme, and supreme in the universe. There is no alternative to people except God’s revelation. Therefore, they have the authority to believe in God and obey the lessons of moral life. They have no right to seek the same status as God because they obey moral life, and they have no right to ask God. They should not be relieved to heaven.
This is quite different in Buddhism. Buddhism believes that the natural environment we live in is felt by the karma of everyone we live in. In other words, we have created the same behavior in the past lives and deaths. It forms a natural environment that allows us to accept and survive together. Therefore, Buddhism does not recognize the god of Cuba who has any absolute right in the universe.
Buddhism also emphasizes the importance of faith. It is the method of faith in Sakyamuni Buddha. The method of becoming a Buddha is absolutely correct and absolutely true. But after your faith, it should be carried out in your daily life according to the method shown by the Buddha. Therefore, although Buddhists regard the Buddha as the object of worship and have a close relationship with their lives, it is better to say that the Buddha’s teachings are done according to the way of life shown by the Buddha. Gradually, they can achieve all the disintegration of the body and mind. The purpose of distress. Buddha is the person who gets rid of all physical and mental distress, and is also the supreme, supreme, supreme super-world and super-cosmic great personality; but the greatness of the Buddha, though full of time and space, does not occupy a fixed Time and space, so everyone can become a Buddha.
When the Buddha of Sakyamuni was in the world, he said that he should be educated. He said that there are many Buddhist Buddhisms, and they can be summed up. There is no scope for the three items of the Ring, the Ding and the Hui. We learn the Buddha in fact, and actually learn these three items. There are many things that can be learned in the world. Those are bitter, relative, limited, lost and varied, and fickle, so Buddhism calls it a leaky study. The three rules of the martial arts, the dynasty, and the literary name are learned. These three things can prevent the loss of the results and continue to learn the extent of the Buddha. Although the ring, the Ding and the Hui are divided into three projects, in fact, there is a chain relationship, such as the three fulcrums of the same thing, which are indispensable. If you want to seek wisdom, you must first have a meditation time, such as meditation. There must be a religious life with a preceptive attitude; the more clean the religious life of the ring, the more it can contribute to the deep meditation, and in the deep definition, the wisdom of Superman can be produced; the slewing head, and then the judgment and choice of wisdom To guide the religious life of the precepts, to identify the depth and evil of meditation.
The definition of the ring is: do not do something, have to do it, it contains instructions, advice, warnings, guidance and so on. The average person only thinks that the Buddhist ring is a negative place to stop the crime. In fact, it is just a matter of not doing anything. This is of course important. Standing in the position of Mahayana Buddhism, it is more important to have a positive attitude. Buddhists are not allowed to do harm, and Buddhists are not allowed to do this. This is a negative request. From the interests of Lili and even the loss of the benefit of the people, Buddhists must not be absent. This is a positive request. A person who believes in Buddhism must make the first point. Those who believe in Buddhism for a long time must progress from the first point to the second point. The first point is to stop evil, the second is to do good; to stop evil is self-interest, to do good is to altruism; to have a self-interested foundation, and not to promote the cause of altruism, then it is impossible to achieve the purpose of becoming a Buddha. Because the content of the ring is from the “following”, “squatting” and “infatuation” of the ordinary people’s behavior, the purification of the complex into the “his”, “compassion” and “wisdom”.
Although the Buddhist ring, because of the difference between the monk and the home, there are complex and different requirements. For the housekeeper, there are five articles that do not kill, do not steal, are not sinister, do not speak, and do not drink, called the Five Precepts. This is the same as other religions. Anyone who swears to believe in Buddhism accepts the Buddhist faith and accepts the Five Precepts as the standard of Buddhist behavior. Because these five precepts are the three psychological behaviors of “corruption”, “skull” and “idiot”, and the specific performance of the body’s limbs and tongue-and-mouth behavior, it is actually the benchmark for all Buddha rings. Buddha is the perfect person of personality. Without perfect personality as the basis, there is no way to become a Buddha. Therefore, the five precepts of Buddhism are also the common requirements of human moral life.
1. Do not kill: Buddhism’s abstinence, although associated with vegetarianism, does not mean vegetarianism. Buddhism encourages the meat of animals to eat less, and even the meat of animals, is based on the requirements of quit. If it wasn’t for me to kill myself, I didn’t teach others to kill if I wanted to eat meat. It wasn’t for others who wanted to eat meat. Moreover, the martyrdom of Buddhism is of course to give compassion to all living beings, and the most important thing is not to kill. If you are not prepared to kill in the future, and hope that you will not commit murder in the future, this killing should be held.
2, not stealing: In addition to the legitimate way of earning a living, to obtain legal profit, not greedy for ill-gotten wealth, this is the definition of not stealing. In order to warn us, we must not be tempted by money, tangled with others in money, and acted as a crime of engulfing public funds, accepting bribes, and invading other people’s property. This ring should be held.
3, not sinister: In addition to the normal sexual relationship between the formal couple, not incest, do not destroy the family of others, do not tarnish the wife and daughter of others, do not hinder the weathering of society. In short, the sexual relationship between men and women is regarded as the responsibility and obligation between couples. In order to maintain the happiness of the family, the happiness of the children, the peace of society, and the health of the family, this ring must be held.
4, no proverb: This can be divided into two categories of size, usually lying, laughing, is a small proverb. For the sake of fame and fortune, he is not a saint and he is a saint, a big proverb. It is not impossible to pretend to be a saint in the house, but the possibility is very small. Therefore, all the laymen can also be held this ring. Moreover, in order to guard against us, we should not become people who are arrogant and wrong, and should not be regarded as untrustworthy people and unspeakable people. They should also be held by this ring.
5, do not drink: the wine itself is not sin, drinking people are not necessarily bad people, and even there are many religions in the world, using wine as a medium between people and God. Prohibition of alcohol is one of the characteristics of Buddhism. The reason is that drinking can make people’s mind turbid, and excessive can make people happy in a state of frenzied like a beast or a foolish. Buddhism is a religion that emphasizes wisdom. The principle of alcoholism and wisdom runs counter to each other, so it advocates prohibition of alcohol. In fact, only those who do not drink alcohol can always keep their minds clear. In today’s society, if you have a clearer mind, you will have more chances of success. Since you are required to drink alcohol before driving, Don’t drink alcohol before you have an important meeting, don’t drink alcohol until you have a big decision to consider, and why not just quit the wine?
In contrast to the three non-leakage studies of quit, determinate, and hui, greed, jealousy, and idiots are called three poisons. Because these three poisons are harmful, they are not easy to do good. Even if they do good, they cannot last and will not reach purity. The three poisons seem to be three big loopholes, which can miss the merits of good deeds; the only way to make up for this big loophole is to study without learning. The first place to start school is to hold the five precepts, to hold the five precepts, at least to suppress the poisonous flames of the three poisons, and then use the water of meditation and wisdom to completely extinguish the fire of the three poisons.
The Five Precepts are the five evils, the relationship between the five evils and the three poisons, that is, the relationship between body, mouth and mind. A chart can be used to illustrate:
Kill the evil spirits
Five evils – life stealing
Three poisons – greedy
The three psychological behaviors of greed, jealousy, and ignorance manifest themselves as the movements of body and mouth, which become five evil acts. The function of the Five Precepts is to prohibit the movements of the body and mouth from the appearance, so that the psychological activities of the three poisons can not get the opportunity to express outwards. At the same time, they are calmed by the time of meditation; they are also observed and analyzed with wisdom. Gradually turn it into the vitality of happiness, compassion, and wisdom. This makes it a definition of the ring: from the point of “doing something” and “doing something”. The relationship before and after it can also be illustrated by a chart:
│ 嗔 嗔 嗔
││ │ │
│↓ ↓ ↓
│ Hui Shoushe
Annoying ← for
The characteristics of greed, jealousy, and idiot are actions that are manifested in the body and mouth by psychological activities, and then vented to people, things, objects, etc. The function of the ring is to restrain the movements of the body and the mouth. The function of the body is to pull back all kinds of mental activities that are scattered outwards, and to make them quiet, and to make them quiet, even the physical state of the things I have died. . However, the hard work should start from everyday life. Therefore, the fixed study can be divided into nine points and two levels to explain.
The first level – working hard in ordinary life
1. Sturdy belief: No matter whether you do anything or not, you will not stand. If you understand your position and ability, you will understand what can and can’t be done, what you can’t do, don’t mourn, can If you do something, you should build your self-confidence and go ahead. At the same time, we must consider the matter itself, whether it is worth doing, whether it is necessary to do it, and listen to the advice of others. If the understanding of the matter is deep enough, then it must be When you are done, you can finish it, build confidence, have confidence, and believe in his beliefs. You can break through all the difficulties and carry out your career with perseverance. Sincerely, the stone is open, and the firm belief can produce unparalleled power.
2. Calm thinking: Before you engage in a job or task, you should make more preparations. “The Doctrine of the Mean” said: “Yu is standing, not hesitating.” Generally speaking, a good start is half the success. In order to get off to a good start, more preparations must be made. In the preparation stage, the steps to be implemented and the situations that may occur should be taken into account. In the process of carrying out the work, it is necessary to review, check for defects and correct errors at any time. A good situation should try to make it better, and a bad situation should try to make it better. This discriminative power and determination are all based on calm thinking.
3. Peaceful words and deeds: If a person wants to be regarded as a person of moral character who can be respected and trusted, he must be cautious of his speech and actions, a whisper and a rash act, he is not To the praise, of course, it is impossible to promote a great cause and gain a lofty social status.
4, the spirit of concentration: no matter what you do, if the spirit is not focused, even if it is done, it will not be outstanding. There is a saying in China: “Three hundred and sixty lines, the line is the champion.” The meaning is: work and career are not high and low, if you can work in the job or occupation you are engaged in, wholeheartedly Putting it all together and putting the whole body and mind into it will make you the most outstanding person in this industry.
The second level – the principle and key to meditation
1. Believe in the practice of practice: Before you actually practice meditation, you must have absolute confidence in the methods you have learned. You have to believe that the Buddha will not lie to us, but also the teacher who believes in guiding you to meditation. It is a journey from a personal experience. You are a pony. If you follow the old horse, there will be no problem. Of course, who is the teacher worthy of your trust, and most importantly, if you don’t have enough confidence in him, and you are dubious about how to guide you, you should not learn from him, otherwise it will be harmful to you.
2, thinking about the practice of practice: practice meditation, can not be without the inspection and inspection time. Be mindful of the physical and psychological phenomena that occur every time you sit in a meditation. Some make you feel warm and comfortable, some make you feel painful, some make you happy, some make you fear, these are likely to happen in one If you can understand the reasons for the beginners, it is best. Otherwise, you should always ask your teacher, he will help you, and let you settle down and continue to practice.
3, reconciliation: the performance of the fixed time, is in the body, mouth, meaning of the three aspects, can also be called body, mouth, and mind. To achieve these three goals, we must start from conditioning them. Tonality is to make the body complete a correct posture suitable for meditation.
4, adjust the interest rate: the breathing when sitting meditation, to be fine, to be long, to be even.
5, reconciliation: the impact of outward impact, floating and scattered, received. The original method is to look at the thoughts with thoughts. In the end, I can’t afford to be seen. The thoughts that I can see are gone. I clearly have the existence of all external things, but the heart is quiet and silent. Do not move, as if the mirror of the mirror reflects a variety of moving or static scenes outside the mirror, the mirror itself is silent. However, such work is easier said than done, but it is not easy.
The average person, from the second level of meditation, can get a level of four points of skill. If you don’t work from the second level, the first level of skill will not be strong. Although I have divided them into two levels to explain, they are actually two sides of one. At the same time, I often emphasize to those who learn Zen with me that there are three advantages to sitting still: 1 to make the body and mind healthy. 2 can make the mind clear. 3 can make people enlightened. Setting up and enlightenment is certainly not an easy task. At least it can strengthen your body, strengthen your heart and help you in your hard work.
Now I will transcribe the following sacred meditations for the American Buddhist Association’s Sunday meditation meeting as a reference for readers who are interested in learning to sit still.
First, the preparation for meditation
1. Cushion: Each of the four-inch cushions with four squares wide and soft and round.
2. Location: Clean, quiet, solemn and sacred interior.
3, time: full of spirits in the morning, the best after getting up and washing. It is carried out regularly every day, every 20 minutes or even 40 or 50 minutes.
After eating, binge drinking, sexual behavior, intense exercise, and tired sleep, midday and midnight, it is not advisable to sit meditation.
4, diet: each meal is better than eight minutes, after a meal for a temporary rest for thirty minutes, began to sit meditation.
Second, the method of sitting meditation
1, the body adjustment method –
1 sitting method:
a knotty sitting (I) auspicious sitting – right foot frame on the left leg and then left foot on the right leg. (II) King Kong sitting – the left foot frame is on the right leg and the right foot frame is on the left leg.
b Half squat – the right foot is placed under the left leg and the left foot is placed on the right leg.
c cross-sitting – the left and right legs are randomly placed horizontally.
d Chair sitting – sitting on the chair, the feet are naturally vertical.
e Japan sitting – two knees long, two feet stretched back to the toes, the waist stretched straight, sitting on the two heels.
2 hand type: two palms are placed on the palm of the hand, and the two thumbs are gently connected, and the middle is round.
3 posture: shake left and right several times to determine the stability of the sitting position, the back bones straight, squatting inward.
a Closed eyes – when the spirit is full.
b Look at one meter in front of you or one point in the wall – when you feel a little dim.
c Close eyes and gaze alternately.
2, the interest rate method – after sitting down for several deep breaths, the last time inhaled Dantian (lower abdomen), it will resume normal breathing.
3, the method of aligning the heart – the concept of counting interest, after the interest rate adjustment, from one to ten repeatedly silently breathing.
1 view of interest
2 income concept
Hui is a “knowing heart” and “picking power” that includes the scope of knowledge. Knowledge cannot cover the content of wisdom, from the sublimation of knowledge to the field of wisdom. Buddhism is not a religion of knowledge, but a religion that sublimates knowledge into wisdom. That is because, in addition to affirming the knowledge of the world, it focuses more on the wisdom of the knowledge of the super-knowledge; wisdom is derived from enlightenment. The “knowledge” and “selection power” of super knowledge. However, although Hui’s acquisition is based on enlightenment and wisdom, he still cannot leave knowledge. It has three serial steps of “smell”, “thinking” and “repairing”:
First, Wen Hui – learning with an open mind
The way Buddhists practice Buddhist practice is called learning Buddha. Those who have not broken their troubles before are called “student” who live in “study place”, and they should remember four sentences every day: “The boundless vows of all beings, Worry and endless vows, the law has no vows to learn, and the Buddha has no vows to become.” That is to say: If you have the desire to become a Buddha, you should do all the troubles, save countless beings, how to worry? How do you live? Then you have to learn all kinds of methods. Therefore, for Buddhists, one day they will not become a Buddha. They will have to study one day. If you are a person who has no interest in learning, you will not learn after you have confidence in Buddhism.
Wen Hui’s way of learning is to use the functions of the ears and eyes. Listening to people to teach Buddhism, explaining the theory of the Bible, is to use the ears; reading the Buddhist theory of Buddhism, seeing the solemn sacredness of the Buddhist dojo and the neatness of the monks and nuns, using the eyes. All of these, as long as they can make your body and mind get a few or even a little benefit, are called Wen Hui. A person who has a higher level of savvy, or a person who has a good time in studying Buddhism, can learn Dharma from the contact with various phenomena in nature, and can learn from the usual conversation between people and people. There are many examples of Dharma, especially in the records of Chinese Zen. Therefore, the Dharma is not necessarily in the Buddhist scriptures. All the things and all phenomena in the world are the real Dharma. However, people who first understand the Dharma need to explain through the Buddhist scriptures.
Second, think Hui – meticulous research
For what you have already heard and seen, you should digest them in the next study, treat what you have learned from all aspects as raw materials that have not been processed, and then, according to your level of understanding, classify and judge What do you think is suitable for your level and what you are currently using, what you accept, what you suspect, what you can’t understand, or what you feel is irrelevant, put them aside as a reference; when your level rises to a certain level At the first stage, it is thought that it is useless and unreasonable. It is also the most useful and reasonable thing at that stage. Therefore, the Buddhist attitude of learning is precise and objective.
Third, repair the wisdom – the actual experience
Use what you have learned, and use what you have learned in your daily life. Hui’s performance is the actual experience of all mind and body. It is the biggest difference from knowledge. Knowledge can be bought and sold. It can be bought and sold now. The general intellectuals can pass on the learned knowledge to students. Hui is different. Hui is the inner and inner experience of the mind and body. It cannot be expressed clearly in words. The so-called “people drink water, warm and self-aware” can teach how to obtain wisdom. Hui itself cannot be taught. The so-called “great wisdom is foolish” is because Hui is not knowledge, and there is no explanation. Therefore, people with great wisdom may be people who are not good at debate, but he must be a person with perfect personality. If you want to know the form of “Hui”, you may get some impressions from the actual life of investigating a person with a Tao.
Repairing, repairing what? Learn how to get a wise approach. I have already told you about this point. From the wisdom of the news and the thoughts, guiding us to hold the “knokes” and the “fixing” is the specific content of the cultivation of wisdom, and then by the precepts and the rules, to produce a stronger wisdom. Force, this cycle is endless, and finally, it is the completion of the highest, supreme, supreme personality – Buddha.
(From “Introduction to Buddhism”)