The Kingdom of Thailand has its own system of traditional medi- cine called “Thai traditional medicine” (TTM). Historical evidence shows that Thai people began to use herbal medicine for the treatment of various symptoms and diseases and health promotion since the Sukhothai period (1238-1377).
The history of traditional medicine began to be recorded since the modern era. In those days there was a man named Chiwokomaraphat Interested in medical studies Because he saw that it was a profession that did not encroach anyone He is full of compassion. Desire to make humans happy Therefore went to study medical studies in the Tao Pogok School of Taxila You are intelligent, capable of learning, learn a lot, learn quickly, have good memory, take less time to study than others. After completing a medical course Can heal once the patient is healed Later, King Pimpisarn was ill with hemorrhoids. Then asked Dr. Chiwokomaraphat to offer treatment Doctor Chiwokkomarapat gave a single treatment. Pimpisarn was recovered from a disease that Therefore please be a royal physician and nourish the monks Considered that Dr. Chiwokkomarapat is a doctor with knowledge and competence since the era And many respected people
History of Thai Traditional Medicine
1. Thai Traditional Medicine before Rattanakosin
The history of traditional medicine in Thailand The stone inscription of the Khmer kingdom was discovered around the year 1725 – 1729. During the reign of King Jayavarman VII he performed a royal charity by building a hospital called the Orthodox pavilion, with the duty of The medical treatment consisted of 92 doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and worshiping rituals. Phra Phaisasayakuru Vithoon With medicine and food Before distributing it to patients Later discovered the crushed stone, medicine in the Dvaravati period And the stone inscription of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great in the Sukhothai period recorded that Created a large herb garden on Khao Luang or Khao Sapphaya In order to allow the people to collect herbs for treatment during illness
During the reign of King Narai of Ayutthaya Discovered the record that There is a clear drug supply system for the people. There are many sources of medicines and herbs. Both inside and outside the city walls, there is a compilation of various medicines for the first time in the history of traditional medicine called ” The Vihara Phra Narai “. Traditional medicine has a great prosperity, especially massage. In this period, Western medicine has started to play a role. In which a French missionary came to establish a hospital for treatment But lacking popularity has therefore abolished
2. Traditional medicine during the Rattanakosin period
- Rama 1, Phra Buddha Yod Fa, Chulalongkorn the Great Has renovated the Photharam Temple or ” Wat Pho ” as a royal temple named ” Wat Phra Chetuphon Wimon Mangkalaram “, has compiled and inscribed the textbook Ruesi Dutton, massage books in the Pavilion As for the drug procurement, the government has established a department of doctors and a temple hall similar to the Ayutthaya period. The doctor who works is called the Royal Doctor. The physicians who treat the general population are called ” doctor of citizens ” or ” doctor of unemployed “.
- Rama 2, Phra Phrabat Phra Lertlapa Napalai Saw that the medical scripture at the Ayutthaya Buddhist temple was lost Because at that time there were two wars with Burma, the country was destroyed and the people including the traditional healers were taken captive, causing the Thai texts and information about the medical to be destroyed as well. Therefore have the royal command to the experts of diseases and medicinal properties Including those who have imported medical textbooks and have the Department of Royal Doctor select To be registered as a royal textbook for the temple’s chapel, and in the year 1816, there was a royal command To enact the law called ” Law of the temple staff dedicated “
- Rama 3, King Rama IV He renovated Phra Chetuphon Temple – Wimon Mangkalaram again. His Majesty To have the establishment of the first traditional medical school, which is ” Wat Pho Traditional Medical School”. At the celebration of Wat Pho at that time, His Highness thought that Thai textbooks and other medical treatments, such as compressing massage, compressing well-known doctors, kept their texts secret. As well as thinking that Western healing is expanding in Siam, and in the near future it may completely obscure the aura of traditional medicine. Finally, there may not be any remaining Thai medicine books for the benefit of future generations. Therefore announced to those who have the ancient recipe books that have good and reliable properties As it was in those days Inscribed as evidence on marble Adorned on the walls of the chapel, the pavilion pillars and the walls of the chedi around the four pagodas and the pavilions of Wat Pho that were renovated at that time This inscription is a textbook indicating the etiology of the disease and methods of treatment. And also supplying rare and medicinal herbs that are grown in Wat Pho
In addition, he had sculptured the Reclining Buddha in various positions To help those wishing to train themselves as doctors Or find a way to heal, study as a public alms Considered as a form of education for the public These textbooks are well known among Thai doctors that Really good medicine books that would not have been revealed. But is a memorial and medical school in Thailand This reign brought the Western medicine to be published by the American missionary group. By the leadership of Dr. Dan Bush Bradley, which Thai people call “Doctor Bradley”, such as vaccination against smallpox. The use of quinine tablets to treat dengue fever etc.
- Rama 4, King Mongkut Western medicine has been used more, such as modern obstetrics, but it is not possible for people to change their popularity. Because of traditional Thai medical care It is a tradition and culture that has traditionally been a part of the Thai way of life.
- Rama 5, King Chulalongkorn Siriraj Hospital was established in 2431 B.E. with teaching and treatment for both traditional and western medicine together. The 3 year curriculum, teaching and medical treatment services, both traditional and western. Together with difficulty There are many conflicts between the instructor and the learner. With concepts And different teaching methods Makes it difficult to blend together The first medical textbook was printed for use in medical schools in 1895. Phraya Pisanu named the textbook “ Medical Welfare ” was regarded as the first national textbook. Later, Phraya Pisanu Prasatwet saw that These texts are difficult for students to study. Therefore has published a new textbook, which is 2 copies of Royal Medical Welfare texts and 3 copies of the summary of medical textbooks, which are still used as medical textures to this day
- Rama 6, King Rama IV ordered the termination of traditional medical practice and later in the year 2466 a promulgation of the Medical Act Is the control of the art of healing To prevent the dangers that may occur to people due to the practice of the arts of those who do not have knowledge and practice. With not being ready in the teaching, testing and public relations Causing many folk doctors to fear being arrested and therefore stopped working in this profession Some burned the texts.
- Rama VII, King Rama VII Enacted the Lord Chancellor’s Law Divide the art of healing into “ modern plan ” and “ ancient plan ” by specifying that
- The modern plan is the practitioner of the art of healing by knowledge from textbooks which are universally popular. Which progressed and prospered By relying on the search and experimentation of scientific knowledge around the world
- The ancient plan type is the practitioner of the art of healing, based on the observation of the expertise that has been passed down as the location Or rely on ancient texts Not proceeding in science
- Rama 9 , King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great In this reign, an association of the School of Traditional Medicine wasestablished at Wat Pho, Bangkok in 1957.Since then, various associations have branched out. Nowadays, there are many schools that operate continuously. Both in Bangkok andother provinces in the year 2525 has established the Ayurveda College. (Chiwokkomarapat)provides training in applied traditional medicine to this day.