World Heritage Sites in Cambodia
Type: World Cultural Heritage
Registration year: 1992
Official name: Angkor
Location: Siem Reap Province (Siem Reap), Cambodia
City of Angkor
The city of Angkor is evidence of the greatness and prosperity of the Cambodian kingdom in the past. Also reflecting the ingenious wisdom of architecture And sculptures of ancient Khmer ancestors The history of the castle city of Phra Nakhon began after King Chaiworaman II (reigning 1345-1378 BC) declared the separation of land independent from Java. And later the royal family built the capital at Haramalai North of the Tonle Lake After that, King Yoswannaman 1 (reigning 1432-1453 BC) initiated the relocation of the capital to Yasothon Pura, or later known as “City of Phra Nakhon” is considered the era of creating hundreds of castles Later, when the reign of King Suryavarman II (reigning in 1656 – around 1693), a great Angkor Wat was born. Later, when King Jayavarman VII reigned (B.E. 1724 – 1761) Pleased to move the capital. To Angkor Thom and also built many more castles, such as Bayon Castle, Ta Phrom Castle, etc.
The capital city is one of the most important archaeological sites in Southeast Asia and is an important tourist destination in Cambodia. The Phra Nakhon ancient park has an area of over 400 square kilometers. Covering forest areas and stone castles Estimated that in the ancient park there are temples and More than 100 stone castles, important sites such as Angkor Wat or Angkor Wat Temple Angkor Thom or Prasat Nakorn Thom, Bayon Castle, Sin Sin Temple, Khmer empire based on Hinduism, astrology and worship of their gods and gods Therefore, the Cambodian architecture is based on one system, with borders, axes and other architectural variables having units of measure or size depending on the size of the object and the logical division of components into each section. Can be measured from the whole building These buildings are concealed in the concepts of religion, worship, calendar and cosmology.
Angkor Wat Temple is a religious place built during the reign of King Suryavarman II, which is a religious place of His Majesty. The temple has been well preserved. Until becoming the only important religious center that has survived to the present day Formerly, Angkor Wat is a Hindu temple. Which was built to offer Vishnu Formerly known as Vishnu’s Castle, meaning “the gods of Vishnu” before changing to Buddhism. Angkor Wat is the world’s largest religious building. There are 200,000 square meters in size. The castle is 60 meters high, 100 meters long and 80 meters wide. There are schemes considered to be the ultimate evolution of Khmer castle. There are 5 castles situated on a high base according to the cosmopolitan center. There is a moat. Surrounded instead of the sea (Heavenly Ocean) took 100 years to build. The outer wall around the castle is 800 meters long. There are stone carvings of the royal duties of King Suryavarman II and stories from literature. And the Apsorn statue or goddess, up to 1, 635 The image is a low relief image. These goddesses were feet on the ground, looking to the front. Gentle gestures Each costume and accessory is almost unique. Prasat Angkor Wat is considered the most prosperous of the classic Khmer architecture. And became a national symbol by appearing in the national flag of Cambodia.
Angkor Thom was the last capital of the city and the busiest of the Khmer empire. With a territory covering an area of 9 square kilometers In the north of Angkor Wat The most distinctive feature is the southern entrance. Which resembles a 4-sided face before entering this area Will be a row of giants (demons) on the right and angels on the left Lined carrying the Naga on 2 bridges. When entering the center of Angkor Thom, the main castle of King Jayavarman is called “Bayon Castle”.
Bayon Castle consists of a three-story stacked base. Suppose to be the place of the gods on top of Mount Sumer. With the tetrahedron pagoda Carved with the face of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, there are 216 faces, a total of 54, facing his face in all four directions. In order to keep an eye on the welfare of the people The smile on the face of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara called “Bayan smile”.
To protect the place and the surrounding area The city of Phra Nakhon has been chosen as a World Heritage Site, meeting the criteria and criteria for considering the registration as a World Cultural Heritage, consisting of 4 items:
- Representing as the exhibition of masterpieces created by creativity The wisdom of man
- It is a great influence Push for continuous development in architectural design, monuments, sculptures, gardens and landscapes, as well as the development of related arts. Or the development of human settlement Which has occurred in a certain period of time Or on any area Of the world that preserves culture
- This is a confirmation of current or extinct evidence of culture or civilization
- An outstanding example of the type of structure that represents cultural, social, artistic, scientific development Industrial technology in the history of humanity
The city of Angkor located in the capital city Siem Reap Province (Siem Reap) 310 kilometers northwest of Phnom Penh.