What is archaeology?
Archaeology is the subject of Study of human history Through the study of archaeological evidence Derived from surveying, excavation (antiquities), excavation (archaeological sites) and the study of various historical documents (stone inscriptions, chronicles). In general, it is necessary to use other sciences in the analysis and interpretation of archeological evidence from the above process. In order to make the past stories of humans more clear Those sciences such as history, art, geology, zoology, botany, paliology, age determination, etc.
In other words, archeology is the study of understanding human history in the past. Including all types of environments that relate to humans in the past All of the environmental types mentioned above refer to the natural environment, such as soil, rocks, forests, mountains, caves, water sources, and cultural environments such as communities, societies, farms, gardens, etc. that relate to communities in the past that an archaeologist was focusing on.
What do archaeologists study?
Archaeologists study about various things as follows:
- Ancient people
- Things that ancient people created Which is collectively referred to as “culture” and can be divided into 2 types, which are Tangible Culture, which are food, clothing, shelter, and constructions for various activities, medicine, utility equipment And cultures that do not appear to be intangible (Intangible Culture) such as religion, beliefs, traditions, music etc.
- Ancient environmental systems Both occurring naturally, such as forests, rivers, minerals, earth and created by people such as villages, farms, gardens, moats, canals. In archeological studies and research Archaeologists often try to find knowledge that in ancient times, at the archaeological sites that are being studied. Occurrences of natural events or phenomena And what cultures Where did it happen how happen How did it happen? Why did it happen? Are there any events or phenomena that occur after the occurrence of that event or phenomenon?
Methods for studying archeology
Archeology study is a kind of science education, like social studies. Archaeological study is the study of various evidence mentioned. In order to get to know the story of humans of any age, in any age, how much more detailed it depends on the evidence found. Interpretation and neutralization There is no prejudice about archaeology’s nationalism, so the story will be most accurate and true, so it will be most accurate.
Archeology may be divided into 4 steps which are
- Survey to find archaeological sites. May be achieved by checking the aerial imagery Documentation and survey studies to gather evidence for evaluating the value of archeological sites in the planning of excavations.
- Excavation is the second process of archeological study. To get the most accurate evidence Excavations must be done carefully to get the most accurate evidence. In order not to destroy the evidence that has accumulated in the soil for hundreds of thousands of years, it must be recorded in detail. And drawing or taking pictures as well
- Analysis evidence obtained from excavations. Must be analyzed in the laboratory to find a model of the shape of the excavated items for further study.
- Interpretation and writing a report is the collection of evidence obtained from excavation surveys And analysis, then translate it into a report, print it, publish it and hold an exhibition summarizing the stories of humans in that era In those days, after that, it was the preserve of ancient artifacts that were discovered, which were Museum arrangement for the benefit of researching general archaeological studies.