Gagne’s Theory Learning by 8-Step as
- Motivation Phase The students’ expectations are the motivation for learning.
- Recognition according to set goals (Apprehending Phase) Students will recognize what is in line with their intentions.
- The manipulation of what is perceived as memory (Acquisition Phase) for short-term and long-term memory.
- The ability to remember (Retention Phase)
- The ability to recall things that have been learned (Recall Phase)
- Applying to what you have learned (Generalization Phase)
- Expression of learned behavior (Performance Phase)
- Showing learning results back to the learner (Feedback Phase). Students are informed of the results quickly, will result in good results and high efficiency.
Robert Gagne, an American philosopher and educational psychologist (1916-2002), proposed the idea of teaching, namely the condition of learning. Gay is in the Gagne’s eclecticism, which believes that there are many types of knowledge. Some types are able to understand quickly without requiring deep thought. Some types of complexity require advanced capabilities. Kaye’s Theory of Learning Explain that learning consists of 3 parts which are
A. Principles and concepts
1) There are 5 types of human learning or ability which are
- Intellectual skills (Intellectual skill) which consists of classification Creating concepts, creating rules, creating processes or advanced rules
- Cognitive strategy
- Language or speech (verbal information)
- motor skills
2) Human learning and remembering process Humans have a process of manipulating information in the brain. In which humans will rely on the information collected to consider and choose to do something And while the process of creating information within the brain is occurring Events outside the human body influence the promotion or inhibition of Can learn to happen internally Therefore, in the teaching and learning, Cayenne has suggested that The teaching conditions should be organized to suit each type of learning, which has different characteristics. And promote learning processes within the brain By organizing external conditions to facilitate the internal learning process of the learners
To help learners learn the content quickly and can memorize what is learned for a long time.
C. Teaching and learning process
Cayenne used the concepts in teaching and learning based on the content presentation. And organize learning activities from interaction. The 9 principles of teaching are detailed in each step as follows
- Gain Attention
Stimulate or encourage learners to become interested in the lessons and content to be studied. Exciting interest in this student may be achieved by Arrange the surroundings to attract attention, such as using graphics. animation And / or the use of sound effects for lessons in the introduction section
- Specify Objective
It is very important to tell students the purpose of this lesson. Especially the web-based teaching and learning that students can control their own studies by choosing to study the content that they want to study by themselves Therefore, the learners know the purpose of the lesson in advance, causing Students can focus on the relevant lesson content. They are also able to choose to study specific content that they lack understanding to help do. To give students the knowledge and ability to meet the objectives of the lesson set.
- Review Activate Prior Knowledge
Reviewing prior knowledge helps motivate learners to learn new content more quickly. Forms for reviewing previous knowledge in web-based lessons can be used in many ways, such as question-and-answer activities. Or grouping for students to discuss or summarize the content that has been learned before
- Presenting new content (Present New Information)
The presentation of lessons on the web can be done in many forms, which are text, images, audio, or even video. The teacher should consider the characteristics of the learners as important in order to make the lesson presentation suitable. Most suitable for students
- Suggesting learning guidelines (Guide Learning)
The guidance of learning means to guide the learners to apply the knowledge they have learned to combine with the old knowledge. That had already been studied For the learners to learn faster and with greater accuracy
- Stimulate lesson response (Elicit Response)
Educators are well aware that learning comes from the opportunity that students have Directly involved in the teaching and learning process Therefore, in the course of teaching and learning on the web, students should be given the opportunity to participate in Participate in educational activities This may be done by organizing online conversations in a synchronous format or asynchronous exchanges of web forums.
- Provide feedback (Feedback)
One of the outstanding features of web-based teaching is that teachers can Contact and communication with students directly Because the role of the teacher has changed from being a knowledge transferer only Alone to provide advice and help supervise the learning of individual learners And with the ability of the internet that allows students and teachers to connect Together anytime Enabling teachers to follow progress and can give feedback to each student. With convenience
- Test new knowledge (Assess Performance)
Testing students’ knowledge and abilities is another important step. Because allowing both learners and teachers to know the level of knowledge and understanding that Learn more about the content of that lesson Knowledge testing in web-based tutorials can take many forms. Whether it is multiple-choice or subjective exams Preparation of discussion activities for large groups or small groups, etc. In this test, learners can do the test on the web via the network.
- Summary and use (Review and Transfer)
Summary and use It is considered an important part in the final step that the lesson must conclude the concept of the content. Only important issues Including suggestions To give students the opportunity to review their knowledge after studying Content has passed At the same time, the lesson must point out relevant content or provide additional references in order to guide the student to study in the next lesson or to apply. With other work.
Important elements that contribute to learning From the concept of educator Gagne
- Learners by touch and nervous system in cognition
- Stimulus is a situation Which is an incentive for learners to learn.
- Response is the behavior that occurs from learning.