Asthma or that people are generally referred to as ” asthma ” is a disease caused by the contraction or narrowing of the airway occasionally. Causing the patient to have chronic shortness of breath, but most have no serious danger Except in cases of severe or not being treated properly It may cause a permanent obstructive airway or even cause death.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease. (Non-communicable diseases) that affect the quality of life and the life of the patient, for example in children causes slow development. Unable to study and work Unable to perform daily activities or play sports normally Especially when the weather fluctuates or has a lot of toxic pollution Patients are more affected in their lives and can have life-threatening consequences, so patients should be aware of themselves and be prepared to deal with potential exacerbations and continue to receive proper treatment.
This disease is a common disease and is likely to occur in both children and adults. But the prevalence is between 10-12 years of age. In infancy, it is found in boys about 1.5-2 times more than girls. Most symptoms tend to occur for the first time before the age of 5 years. First, at a young age and old age
Causes of asthma
This disease is caused by many common factors. Both heredity The immune system, infection, and the environment Resulting in chronic inflammation of the blood vessels Makes the bronchial more sensitive to various stimuli than normal people, which is why causing bronchial muscle contractions Swelling of the bronchial wall tissue And has a lot of phlegm in the trachea Therefore, the overall effect is to narrow the bronchial tubes, resulting in revesible airway obstruction which can be restored to normal or after drug use.
Some patients may have continuous bronchitis for years. If not treated properly The structure of the windpipe will gradually change until finally there is an abnormal (Airway remodeling) type. (Irreversible) causing permanent obstructive airway conditions
Patients often have a history of other allergies, such as allergic rhinitis. Skin from allergies And often have parents, grandparents or relatives with asthma or other allergies. In addition, there are also found factors that increase the risk of this disease, including babies whose mothers smoke during pregnancy, babies Who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight, have been exposed to large amounts of allergens since the first year, children living in homes where their parents smoke, the addiction Buyer virus from a particular virus Rs suites and so on.
Causes to induce asthma attacks.
Patients often have relapses when there are stimuli or provoking causes. The most common are
• Allergens such as grass weeds, pollen, dust mites in the house (found on carpets, mattresses, furniture, or toys made of kapok or fur). Fungi spores (spores found in shrubs in the garden, bathroom, or kitchen. In the damp) cockroaches, domestic animals (Allergens tend to be along saliva Fur like dogs and cats Flaky skin that is peeling or dandruff Food (including cow’s milk and cow’s milk products, shrimp, clams, crabs, fish, eggs, peanuts, sesame, food preservatives, food coloring), substances in the sulfite group, and impurities in certain foods or beverages Species (such as dried fruit, wine, beer)
• Irritations such as cigarette smoke, incense smoke, smoke, exhaust fumes, dust, air pollution (gases caused by the combustion of cars Ozone gas found in large cities), pesticides or weeds, hairspray, odor, color, pungent smell, chemicals inside the house or office and factory Including cold or changing weather
• Respiratory infections such as flu, flu, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis
• Gerd Because gastric juice or acid that flows down into the trachea can cause asthma more often and exacerbations.
• Sex hormones, because found that women enter the reproductive age Period before menstruation Or while pregnant (During the 24-36 weeks of pregnancy) often have recurrent asthma
• Drugs include aspirin, beta blockers (such as Propanolol), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
• Mental stress such as stress from work, family, economic problems Sadness from the loss of lover Including depression, etc., which results in abnormal breathing without knowing it. Causing deep breathing, some shallow, some alternating Because it will result in dry respiratory mucosa, difficulty in breathing and more easily relapse.
• Exercise or exertion in various activities, including laughing a lot, may induce exacerbation of asthma in some patients. Especially in those who exercise until too tired or overworked Or exercising in a cool, dry place
• Exposure to heat, cold, such as eating ice cream or entering the air-conditioned room
Symptoms of asthma
Patients often have uncomfortable tightness in the chest. Or panting together with wheezing and whistling sounds (In the initial stage, this sound will be heard while exhaling. But if it is more, it can be heard both while inhaling and exhaling). Cough may be accompanied by a clear phlegm.
Some may only have tight, uncomfortable symptoms in the chest or cough. Without any other obvious symptoms if the bronchus is not very narrow The cough will look like the flu. Allergic rhinitis Or bronchitis Especially in the initial stages of this disease Patients may have a lot of cough at night or early in the morning. During cold weather or climate change Or running around a lot in young children may cough up until vomiting is a sticky phlegm and feel comfortable after vomiting.
Some patients may have allergies such as stuffy nose, itchy throat, colds, sneezing or rash together. Or have a history of allergies before
In the period of no relapse Patients will feel comfortable like normal people. In mild to moderate cases, symptoms tend to occur occasionally and symptoms begin to suddenly arise when triggered. (Patients who have difficulty breathing will get up to sit against the table or chair and chair to throw). In severe cases, the symptoms persist throughout the day until medication is received. Therefore will feel more comfortable breathing
Some patients with severe asthma, such as severe asthma, often have to go to the hospital emergency room often. Used to have a tube to save lives Must use oral or injectable steroid medication Or require a short-acting beta 2 stimulant Inhale more than 1-2 tubes per month if lack of treatment or insufficient medication is given to control the symptoms Patients may have asthmatic symptoms continuously for hours to days, even if the usual medication used is ineffective, called ” asthma ” or ” asthmaticus “. Will have difficulty breathing Causing the body to lack oxygen and have a congestion of carbon dioxide Acidosis, confusion, unconsciousness will eventually stop breathing and the heart stops. Died in a short time.
Symptoms that fall into asthma
If the patient has any of the following symptoms To suspect asthma
• There are frequent whistles, more than once a month.
• With coughing, feeling tired Or wheezing while running or exercising
• Coughing at night Without being infected with the respiratory tract
• Having ongoing symptoms after 3 years of age
• The symptoms will relapse or increase. When there are stimuli or provoking causes such as cigarette smoke, house dust mites, pollen, sprays, respiratory infections, medication, stress, exercise.
• When the flu is ongoing for more than 10 days or have a severe cough. Or cough longer than others who have a cold
• Symptoms will improve when using asthma medication.
• Having parents, siblings, asthma, or other allergies such as allergic rhinitis Allergic dermatitis.
When there are any suspicious symptoms, you should see a doctor for appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan. When visiting a doctor, what the doctor will provide care is
1. When sudden asthma attacks Inhale the beta 2 stimulant immediately, but if there is no inhaler type, the doctor will inject the beta 2 stimulant under the skin instead. If the patient’s condition is not resolved, the doctor can repeat the inhaler or injection once every 20 minutes, because the first important thing is to treat and control the disease as soon as possible when symptoms occur. If the patient feels well The doctor will assess the symptoms. Causes And detailed treatment history of that patient, divided into 2 cases which are
• In the case that the patient has just first symptoms and has never received medication before The doctor will start the treatment for the 2nd step and if the symptoms become severe, the treatment will be started as shown in the table below. And the doctor will send a lung function test Providing health education and advice on various behaviors, especially the avoidance of various stimuli and correct medication methods. And the doctor will follow up with the patients every 1-3 months to assess the symptoms and adjust the appropriate treatment procedures.