Originally published: 2015
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Subject: Civilization; Technology and civilization; Human beings
Homo Deus is a sequel to Yuval Noah Harari’s Sapiens, a professor of history who presents the “future” of humanity through the study of the history of the Homo Sapiens, which developed themselves as “incompetent” animals. Important to be “god” who determines the destiny of all things But when things that are created by humans, like an algorithm, begin to have intelligence that is more intelligent than the human brain. How will our world all change?
Chapter 1: The New Human Agenda
The 3 major tragedies that humanity has encountered over the past thousands of years include “famine”, “plague”, and “war.”
Famine: In the Age of Agriculture If natural disasters affect the agricultural produce of a village Suffering from starvation is almost inevitable, but today agricultural productivity and improved human well-being have almost completely vanished from the world, and humans have almost disappeared. The chance of dying from an “overeating” diet
Plague: Beginning in the 1330s, the Black Death threat kills more than 1 in 4 people in Europe and Asia. In the early days of Spanish colonization in the Americas, the disease spread by indigenous peoples that had never been spread across the Aztec and Maya kingdoms so quickly that over 90% of the local population died. Within a short time But now The epidemic has caused much less damage, despite the combination of living conditions in congested cities and the rapid transportation system that can be a great spread of the epidemic. This is because modern medical science has developed so that it can quickly detect the cause and control the spread of the contagious disease (Ebola occurred in 2014, killing only tens of thousands of people). Future fatalities are likely to occur from human abscess rather than from nature.
War: Currently, war and crime are just 1% of the causes of human death. (Which is less than suicide and diabetes). This is because the current war is almost “No benefit” in economic worthiness anymore The emergence of “nuclear” weapons results in battles between superpowers being like “Suicidal mass” is illogical. Victory from that war is almost of no value, because the most valuable human belongings of this era are in Human “computers” and “the brain” (wars that have occurred in the past often occur with countries with enormous resources such as oil wells or mines). On the other hand, “lasting peace” has occurred. Replace “Temporary peace” through international trade and investment makes the mindset of the war between them “Impossible” anymore. And this is why China chose to enter into business contracts with Apple and Microsoft instead of marching to Silicon Valley.
When the “challenges” in the past have been almost completely resolved Highly ambitious humans began to search for a new “challenge” that consists of immortality, happiness and transcending the limits of normal humans to “God”.
Immortality: “Death” is a very important part of “religion” that teaches humans to do good to create Great “life after death” (if there is no death The concept of heaven and hell would never have happened). But today, “death” that occurs to humans through various “diseases” is interpreted to become just “Technical problems” of the human body waiting for medical technology to solve the problem. Nowadays, scientists and leading technology companies have started to focus on Life Science or the science of life that studies about the treatment of disorders of the body and stretching. The lifespan of cells and human organs. Soon, we may start to see humans with the age of wax. (Which has completely changed the social structure of the present Imagine that humans may retire at the age of 120, Putin may be the president of Russia for the next 60 years.) In the long term Humans may begin to become “a-mortal” or people with immortal bodies (unless they receive severe damage to death. Which may make these immortal people afraid of extreme risk activities), of course, that all “human” will have to make every effort to become eternal and capital Enormous will be the catalyst for the pursuit of immortality to the point of success.
Happiness: Since the beginning of building the kingdom and nation The development of infrastructure, education, sanitation and improving the living conditions of the people with the main objective is to create “Strength” for the country without considering the true “happiness” of the people. (Many developed countries have a higher rate of suicide following the increase in GDP per capita). Creating true happiness of human beings must start from solving two important “obstacles” 1. Psychological obstacles “That human happiness is due to the fact that they must meet what their expectations are. (At present Technological progress has led to higher expectations of humans.) 2. Barriers to “biology” that have proven that human happiness depends only on “hormones” in the body. Following the evolution of nature that made humans feel good after accomplishing things that were beneficial to life before that feeling would later fade away The future technology that will fill the human gap is to create “Eternal happiness” through “organizing” the system of chemicals in the human body to be able to secrete hormones for humans to be happy at all times. (Currently, millions of humans consume sedatives Antidepressants and drugs That all affect the change of chemicals that affect human emotions all.
Divinity: After humans are able to design their own bodies and minds The rest of their goals would be to upgrade their “power” to the level of “god” since the enhancement of the body’s ability to modify genes. Combining robots with the human body and brain To uploading the human mind to an unending machine All of this may seem fanciful. But one thing that can be sure is Nowadays humans cannot imagine “Human future” that has passed from the Homo Sapiens (intelligent human) to Homo Deus (human god) for sure.
History is a good proof that “Human upgrade” is something that cannot be avoided in the future. Early technology may occur in the form of human abnormalities (such as embryo selection of healthy babies or embryo correction of embryos with troubled DNA. ) But if those processes can increase normal human qualities Finally, the world will not be able to control the spread of this technology. (If America bans genetic modification But North Korea fully supports this project to create intelligent humans America would definitely not let this opportunity go.)
But do not forget that the “future” that we are able to see in the air is the result of the composition and beliefs of humans that have been created by humans from the past to the present. That means that the world and humankind may not be what we imagine when real “future” arrives.