Review Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind Book by Yuval Noah Harari
13.5 billion years ago The Big Bang has created an important component of the universe: matter, energy, time and space.
3.8 billion years ago Life began to emerge in a star in the solar system called “the world”.
2.5 million years ago, a creature similar to the current “human” species was born.
10,000 years ago, Homo Sapiens was the only human species that survived in the world.
Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind presents the history of humanity through three major revolutions, namely the awareness revolution that promotes humans to become intelligent societies that are more intelligent than all living things on Earth. The agricultural revolution resulted in the transformation of human social structure from the forest to the city and the scientific revolution that is the starting point of the leap development of mankind today.
Chapter 1: An Animal of No Significance
Homo Sapiens is a scientific name that consists of two components: genus (genus), Homo name meaning “human”, and species (Sapiens) meaning “intelligent” and Homo Sapiens are considered organisms in Family (the family) the great ape family, also with chimpanzees Gorillas and Orangutan
Human means “Homo” organisms are not the only Sapiens of 2.5 million years ago. Ape could successfully evolve into a human being in East Africa, which later these “humans” began to travel to settlements. On different continents with different climates, resulting in the evolution of human species suitable for that climate, such as Homo Neanderthalensis or “Neanderthals” The body is a great strength for living in temperate climates like Europe and western Asia. Over the course of millions of years until about 10,000 years ago, the world was not the only human species like today that only Homo Sapiens survived and almost throughout its existence. Humans are just “Ordinary organisms” that do not have any significant impact on the environment
Homo (human). Many species have many common elements, such as a large brain (which helps to build more complex ideas while consuming more energy than other animals). Standing on two legs that helps release. “Hand” for use in other activities (But it also causes defects in the body, especially for women who need to give birth faster, which causes the children of children to be raised for many years before becoming self-reliant) and living together as a social animal. Nonetheless, for almost 2 million years, humans have become the only medium in the food chain. They do not have the strength to fight high-class hunters, and archaeologists believe that humans first used stones for banging bones to eat the spinal cord from animal carcasses.
One of the key factors driving human development is the “fire” that many species have been using since about 800,000 years ago. Fire helps humans create their own “energy”, both light, warmth. Being a weapon and “cooking” food, which eating cooked food results in the evolution of the human intestines shortened. (Food takes less time to digest), which is like adding space to the brain that uses high energy to expand.
Homo Sapiens, whose human-like faces today, were born about 150,000 years ago in East Africa. And since about 70,000 years ago, Homo Sapiens began to expand its territory to various parts of the world. Beginning in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, Australia and America, and within 60,000 years, all other human species have disappeared from the world.
An important theory that describes the termination of other species of humans is divided into two directions: Interbreeding Theory on the crossbreeding of native human species with Homo Sapiens that may be able to explain the skin color differences of various ethnicities of Human beings nowadays (Scientific evidence detects the DNA of other species of humans in small doses that vary by locality) and the Replacement Theory on the “replacement” of Homo Sapiens, whose intelligence and skills are grouped together. Bigger than other species (Which is highly feasible compared to the current violence and conflicts between people of different races). Imagine if the world today is inhabited by various human species. How much disturbance will occur?
Chapter 2: The Tree of Knowledge
The factor that Homo Sapiens started to leave Africa and was able to take over the territory of other human species 70,000 years ago was The “cognitive revolution” has resulted in Sapiens having the same complex ideas as humans today, and also creating complex “languages” for more effective communication. Archaeologists believe that the language was originally intended to make gossip humans more convenient, it may sound funny, but gossiping with the villagers is a very good relationship between a large group of humans. One of Sapiens’ specialties is the use of language in telling the story. “Fiction that evolved into faith” or imagined reality such as myths, gods, ghosts and demons, humanitarian principles Laws, or even the existence of large organizations and nations that allow Sapiens to live and participate in large groups of similar beliefs.
All of these problems occur, although biology has clearly proven that every human being has an equal genetic structure. “Nature” gives humans the opportunity to do what they want to the best of their ability. Only the “culture” that man created himself is responsible for dissuading us from doing those things.