What is perforated eardrum?

The tympanic membrane is a thin sheet of tissue Separates the outer ear and middle ear When sound waves pass through the ear canal and affect the eardrum. The eardrum will vibrate. Causing the sound energy that passes through to be transformed into mechanical energy Transmission to the Malleus, Incus and Stapes respectively, the tympanum is important and the structure is fragile. Many people are wondering what the perforated eardrum has heard, what causes it. Dangerous or not What are the symptoms to know that the perforated eardrum and how to treat and take care of yourself? You can find the answer in this article.

Causes of the perforated eardrum or perforated eardrum
Because the structure of the eardrum is quite fragile Therefore there are many reasons that can cause the eardrum to penetrate, such as:

The eardrum is injured by using a cotton swab or ear pick. Because while picking the ear, it could not be seen that various things Which is inserted into the ear, which organ is affected? Therefore, it is best to avoid cleaning the inside of the ears by using things in the ears.

  • Having earwax is a normal part of the body. If there is a blocked earwax (Impacted cerumen) until causing hearing disorders Recommend visiting an otolaryngologist to suck or remove the clogged earwax. To clean the ears manually, use a cotton ball to wipe the outside of the ear canal only.
  • Very loud sounds, such as explosions due to the large amount of pressure and energy coming through the eardrum. Can cause the eardrum to tear or penetrate
  • Injury around the head such as a broken skull If the injured area is near or has a structure near the eardrum Will damage the eardrum.
  • Direct ear damage, such as slapping the ear area Causing the eardrum to be directly affected
  • Injury of the tympanic membrane due to rapid atmospheric pressure changes (Barotrauma) is found during an airplane flight when the plane is boarding or landing. And deep diving
  • Inflammatory infection of the middle ear (Otitis media). Inflammatory processes and pus in the middle ear cause self decay (Necrosis) of the eardrum. Until it can form a hole
  • Neoplasm causes the inflammatory process and a hole in the eardrum.

Perforated eardrum Dangerous or not?
Perforated eardrum In most cases it is not dangerous to the point of requiring immediate medical treatment from the ENT doctor. Or a history of suspected perforation of the eardrum Should see a general doctor for history taking and physical examination. The doctor will diagnose and treat it initially. Before sending you to see an ENT specialist. In the event that there is a problem within the ear Should not let the symptoms last for a long time Due to other complications in the ear.

Perforated eardrum symptoms – Symptoms of perforated eardrum include:

  • There is fluid flowing out of the ear canal, such as blood, clear pus.
  • Having an earache together with a history of infectious otitis media
  • A humming sound in the ears, like the sound of an insect flying near the ear
  • When trying to exhale while closing the nose (Valsalva maneuver) and hear the sound of the wind coming out of the ear canal
  • Abnormal hearing Or have a hearing loss in the auditory canal

Aside from various symptoms Which causes suspicion that a membrane has pierced There is also a history that leads to suspicion of this condition as well, which is the history of frequent middle ear infections. History has had surgery on the ear area before The history of the use of cut sheets or ear picking sticks and blood sticking out etc.

How is the treatment of perforated eardrum? Need surgery or not?
In general The eardrum can repair itself to some extent. If the hole that penetrates the eardrum is small The doctor will allow the eardrum to repair itself. By giving antibiotics to prevent infection within the middle ear area Because this infection makes the eardrum unable to repair itself. Then the symptoms and size of the holes will be continuously monitored for approximately 2 months. If the hole is small, there is no repair. Or not able to repair oneself well enough.

If the hole in the eardrum is large The doctor may consider a small surgery called Pano Plasti Team (Tympanoplasty). This surgery is performed by bringing tissue in other areas to place on the eardrum. Will do outpatient treatment No need to go to the operating room.

How to take care of yourself when a perforated eardrum?
How to take care of yourself when the eardrum penetrates With the following:

  • Avoiding allowing water to enter the ear canal May put a cotton ball moistened with Vaseline to fill the ear canal while bathing to prevent water entering the ear.
  • Be careful not to get the ear infected. Because the infection causes the eardrum to not repair itself
  • Avoiding to affect the ear area Because it will slow the self-repair process of the tympanic membrane
  • Do not order strong snot Because it will injure the eardrum.
  • Warm compresses may be used to relieve pain or discomfort in the ears.

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