Coffee is a beverage made from roasted coffee beans obtained from coffee trees. Popular hot drinks But can also be drunk cold Sometimes it is popular to add milk or cream to coffee as well. In one cup of coffee contains about 80-140 milligrams of caffeine. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, like tea and water. In addition, coffee is also an agricultural product that is exported a lot. Ranked sixth in the world
It is believed that coffee was first discovered by an Arabian goat kid. (Ethiopia). The name Caldi from the observation that Goats look more energetic when eating the red fruits of a tree. Which is the coffee tree itself In the period before the 16th century, coffee was only grown by Arabs. The word coffee is derived from the word “Hawa Wah”. In Arabic, it is distorted to the Turkish language before becoming a coffee in English and coffee. In Thai, the Arabs cherish the varieties of coffee very much. Therefore only export the roasted coffee beans But finally, coffee beans came out into the world. By smuggling out by the Indians on pilgrimage to Mecca And finally spread to Java, the Netherlands and throughout Europe For the Americas The coffee tree was difficult to bring By the French sailors in the early 18th century There is only one remaining coffee tree on the boat to land on the American coast and spread further. Until now, this land Has become the land that grows the most coffee in the world.
Types of coffee beans
Arabica-Brazil coffee tree, coffee has more than 6,000 varieties, but the main varieties There are 2 varieties that are popular, Arabica (Arabica), which is a traditional coffee. And has good taste and Robusta, which has high caffeine content and can not be planted in the Arabica Plantation (robust in English means durable), with more durability Therefore making the Kapar Robusta cheaper But people don’t like to drink a lot because of the bitter and sour taste Robusta of good quality is often used as a mixture of espresso blends (espresso has two large types Is the type of authentic Arabica With other types of coffee combinations)
Arabica coffee tends to have different names depending on the port name used for exporting. The two oldest ports are Mocha and Java. Coffee is more specific nowadays in growing areas. Must specify the country, region and sometimes have to say that planted at any area ever. Coffee experts may even have to bid for coffee. By looking at how many numbers One of the highest value Robusta coffee is Indonesia’s Kopi Luwak. The beans of this type of coffee are picked up from the feces of the Common Palm Civet (Paradoxirus family), which the digestive processes within the musk body produce a special good taste. Called in Thai as coffee musk.
Coffee bean production
Curing in coffee production One of the less well-known methods is Aging. Many types of coffee will get better quality after being cured. Its sour taste will decrease. While the harmony of the overall flavor will increase, many manufacturers tend to sell the coffee beans after 3 years of curing and some of the most well-known stores (such as “Toko Aroma” in Bandung city Indonesia), even the seeds that have not been roasted for 8 years
RoastingThe roasting process is an indispensable step in getting a good cup of coffee. When roasted, the green coffee beans will swell up to almost double the size of the original. Along with changing the color and density to When the seeds are heated, they will gradually turn yellow and eventually become a light brown color. The color of the cinnamon and it will become darker in color Until it is lifted out of the heat. At the same time, we can see the oil coming out on the surface of the seed In light roasting Coffee will retain the original flavor better. This original flavor will depend on the soil and the weather where the coffee tree has grown. Coffee beans from famous areas such as Java and Kenya. They are only lightly roasted Only in order to maintain the most unique flavor The darker the coffee beans are roasted, the stronger Its original flavor is even more obscured by the more roasted flavor. Some types of coffee that are roasted Until the taste almost does not indicate the place of cultivation at all Will be mainly sold using the level of roasting Beginning with “Light Cinnamon Roast” to “Vienna Roast” and “French Roast” and others.
In the 19th century, coffee beans were traded while they were still green and were roasted in a frying pan. Roasting in this way requires a lot of expertise. For losing the flavor of the seeds that have not yet been roasted Can be prevented by packing in a vacuum wrap But the problem is that the coffee beans will release carbon dioxide for days After being roasted and finished The maker must then leave the roasted coffee before holding it in a vacuum. For this reason, the two technologies have been developed. Illy uses pressurized cans. Other roasted coffee makers Use the method of packing the whole seed into the bag as soon as it is finished roasting by using pressure release valves.
Today, home baking is becoming popular again. The computer-controlled coffee roaster makes it very easy to roast your own coffee at home. And some households use the method of roasting in the oven or popcorn maker After roasting Coffee loses its flavor quickly. Although some people like to leave the coffee for 24 hours before making the first cup, everyone agrees that it will lose its flavor and bitterness. After storing for about 1 week Even if stored in the most suitable condition
The fineness of the pulp that has a great impact on the taste. The more finely ground coffee Will get even more intense and rich flavors The main reason that some people don’t grind too much Is to allow the grounds to pass through coarse filters (such as cafeteria). There are three methods of producing coffee grounds ready to brew
Crushing: Press the seeds by using two rotating devices. Use the rotation to break the seeds. In this way, there is a small risk of burns. The grinder may look like a wheel or a cone. With the cone type to be quieter and less likely to get clogged. Cone grinder helps to preserve most of the smell. And can grind it very finely In addition, the resulting waste will have a consistent resolution as well. Grinder made of steel, which has a complex design May reduce the efficiency of the gear. Resulting in slower grinding The slower the grinding The less heat enters the coffee grounds. For this reason, the smell can be preserved very well. Because the resolution can be adjusted to many levels This grinding method is suitable for all types of coffee. Both made with an espresso machine, drip drip, percolator, and French press. A good quality conical grinder can also be crushed. Especially fine for use in making Turkish coffee. The grinding speed is generally not more than 500 cycles per minute.
Rotary disc type grinder Can grind faster than cones (10,000 to 20,000 rpm) and will result in a little heat into the coffee This uniform is the most economical way to produce consistent fine waste. That can be used in many ways This kind of waste is perfect for home espresso pumps. However, it cannot be crushed as finely as a cone.
Chopping: Modern ‘grinders’ often use a method of slicing coffee beans into pieces. Although it gives the same result as a good grinding, in general, meticulous people often blame that this method can not provide quality coffee to the old way. Blade grinder “blends” the seeds finely by using the blades to rotate at high speed (20,000 to 30,000 rpm). The coffee grounds are uneven. And will receive more heat than using a grinder The blade grinder will cause “coffee dust” which can cause the sieve of the espresso machine and the French press machine to clog. Therefore, this grinder Therefore suitable only with drip makers And it can also be used to grind spices and herbs as well This type of machine should not be used with a pump espresso maker.
Ground into powder: Turkish coffee or (Turkish Coffee) is a boil of the whole grind from grinding, By the way, the drink will be poured immediately and then started to filter drinking only This method produces waste that is too fine and is suitable for brewing like this.
There are many ways to brew coffee. Which can be divided into categories according to the water supply to coffee grounds Can have four main types as follows
Brewing: Turkish coffee. Traditional methods of brewing. Which is still used in the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey, and Greece. It’s including boiling fine coffee powder with water in the isthmus. Which is called ibrik in Arabic, cezve in Turkish, and dzezva in Serbo-Croatian? And let it boil slightly Sometimes adding sugar to the pot to add sweetness. And also add flavor and aroma with cardamom. The result is a small cup of strong coffee There is a bubble on top. And the coffee grounds are thick as mud in the bottom
Use of pressure: Espresso is brewed with boiling water to pressure. And is often the basis for mixing many kinds of coffee or serving it simply (usually after dinner). This coffee is one of the strongest types commonly drunk. And has a unique flavor and crema Coffee machine with hot water (Or Mocha Pot) is divided into three parts. In which the lower part is used for boiling water So that the vapor drifts up to the coffee grounds in the middle Coffee water obtained Which often have the same concentration as espresso Will be kept in the top part The part that is usually placed next to the heater or stove Some devices may also have 5 glass or clear plastic lids to watch the coffee as it floats up.
Gravity: Drip brew (or filter) is a drip of hot water passing through the coffee grounds placed in the filter. (Maybe paper or perforated metal). Intensity depends on the proportion of water and coffee. But usually not as intense as espresso Coffee maker using hot water type II Is the type that uses gravity to pull water through the coffee grounds But gives more intensity
Dipping: The French Press (or cafeteria) is a tall and narrow glass cylinder. Consists of a piston with a filter Coffee and hot water are mixed in a cylinder. (About 2-3 minutes) before the piston Which is in the form of metal, foil is pressed down so that only the coffee on top is ready to serve. Coffee bags (similar to tea bags) are a less popular method than using tea bags. Since it is much larger (The amount of coffee that needs to be put in the bag is much higher than the amount of tea.) All of the above-mentioned coffee uses coffee grounds brewed with hot water. Coffee may be left behind or filtered out. Each method requires a finer grinding resolution. The electric coffee maker can boil water and brew dissolved powder. Without having to rely on too many people and some types also have timer Serious coffee drinkers tend to hate this convenient method. Which often leads to loss of good taste and smell This group of people tend to favor newly brewed coffee. And more traditional brewing methods
Each type of coffee
1. Black coffee
brewed with water droplets may be a water permeate or a French press Served without milk May add sugar People often misunderstand that black coffee and espresso are the same. But in truth, both types of coffee have many differences. The important thing is The espresso cups are smaller in size. Because it is popular to drink all in one gulp Usually, espresso doesn’t add sugar or milk, and people who don’t like espresso correctly brewed must have a golden bubble floating on top. The taste of espresso will stick after drinking for longer (15-30 minutes).
Espresso is a coffee that is strong and dark. In which there is a method of brewing using steam or hot water through the finely ground roasted coffee beans. The origin of the espresso name comes from the Italian word “espresso” meaning urgent. Espresso is a very popular coffee. Most in southern Europe Especially in Italy and France. Ordering “Caffe” coffee in stores is generally an espresso. With a compression method Giving the espresso a strong, strong coffee flavor Different from normal coffee brewed via drip And because of this unique and intense flavor Allowing coffee drinkers to drink espresso without cooking with sugar or milk and is usually served in a shot (cup of glass) so that the amount is not too much (about 1-2 ounces or 30-60 milliliters, depending on drinking habits Of each country)
Ordering espresso at regular coffee shops Usually ordered according to the quantity of “single” or “double” (single shot or two shots). Espresso is highly sensitive to reaction with oxygen. In order not to spoil the taste, drink it should be freshly brewed. The coffee powder used depends on each brewing system. Brewing or pressurized brewing systems Must use fine powder But not to the point of being flour (The size of the ground coffee powder will vary depending on the duration of the coffee, such as an espresso machine. The standard time is 18-30 seconds, it must use fine powder. French Press Maker Must be ground up and the brewing time will increase accordingly <The more coarse, the longer it takes to brew>)
In espresso maker Must control various factors That affects the taste, such as coffee beans used (It should be roasted coffee beans Keep not more than 1 month), grinding coffee (The size of the ground coffee powder must be related to the machine and the duration of the coffee flow while brewing), water used to brew coffee. (Quality is water that is used for consumption, should not use too clean water because it is not received Nutrients that come with water And also affects the taste), brewing time (As mentioned above, if the espresso brewing time is less than 18 seconds or under extract, the packing of the coffee per shot is not tight or the amount of coffee in the shot is too small or the coffee powder size is too low. Too rough If the espresso is brewed for longer than 30 seconds, the resulting espresso will have a bitter, bitter, not intense, burnt aroma from compressed coffee. The foreign language called over-extract)
Cappuccino is one of the coffee drinks originating from Italy. Cappuccino mainly consists of espresso and milk. Cappuccino brewing often has a ratio of 1/3 espresso mixed with steamed milk (hot milk through steam) 1/3. And the milk beat into 1/3 foam fine, floating on top In addition, maybe sprinkled with cinnamon powder or a little cocoa powder according to preference. The mixture of cappuccino is different from that of the latte macchiato, which consists mainly of milk and milk with a little foam. In Italy, people often drink cappuccinos, especially for breakfast. Which may include bread slices or cookies This may be because the way of life of the Italian people often does not eat breakfast in business style Cappuccino and Light Bread Therefore suitable as a morning meal And because of this, they don’t drink cappuccinos at other times of the day. But for foreign countries, including Thailand Drinking Cappuccino Can drink at any time, not considered strange.
Latte is Italian, meaning milk. In other countries, it means latte coffee or coffee drinks prepared with hot milk. By pouring 1/3 espresso and 2/3 parts hot milk into the cup at the same time and pouring about 1 cm thick milk foam over the top in Italy This latte coffee is known as “Caffe e latte”, which means coffee and milk similar to the French term “cafe au lait”. Latte coffee became popular outside of Italy in the early 1980s. To make a latte, the barista (or a skilled coffee maker) uses a slight movement of the wrist while pouring milk and milk foam onto the coffee. Causing various patterns called latte art or milk froth art in coffee cups
Mocha is a type of Arabica coffee. Which is planted at the Mocha Port in Yemen Mocha coffee has a color and smell similar to chocolate. (Although it does not contain chocolate in Mocha at all), which is unique to make Mocha widely known. In addition, Mocha also means coffee drinks which contain espresso and Cocoa Serve both hot and cold with ice.
6. Americano or cafe americano
Americano is a type of coffee drink Which has a brewing method by adding hot water to the espresso. Dilution of espresso, which is a concentrated coffee with hot water Making Americano as old as normal coffee But with a strong aroma and flavor derived from espresso Americano is perfect for those who like black coffee. But not old and heavy to espresso Most coffee lovers like to drink Americano without cooking with milk or sugar. To indulge in the American coffee taste, which is different from normal coffee For the origin of the American name, which means the United States It is said that pure espresso is too strong for American coffee lovers. Espresso coffee is therefore served, diluted with hot water. Although the origin of the name means American style coffee. But Americano is not the popular coffee that Americans drink Until the prosperity era of the Starbucks franchise in 1990, however, America was not considered a coffee that was very popular.
7. White coffee
White coffee is a type of herbal tea. Discovered in Beirut Very popular in Lebanon and Syria And popular with desserts in some European countries to mention white coffee in the form of coffee with milk At the same time, White Coffee in the United States would mean Coffee that is brewed for a long time to have a color similar to yellow
Famous coffee source by country
- Jamaica is the world’s most famous coffee source. The Blue Mountains are grown on high peaks. Almost all products are exported to Japan. And a little more was sent United States, United Kingdom, and Germany. Famous brands are High Mountain Supreme (Hign Mountain Supreme) and Prime Watch’s no way (Prime Washed Jamaican)
- Brazilian coffee production as the world’s No. 1 brand name is Brazilian Santos (Brazillian Santos)
Columbia production. Coffee is the 2nd place in the world. The coffee is named Suremo, Hawaii. The famous coffee is Kona,
- Indonesia. Java. The specific method here is Curing in a special warehouse for the coffee beans to change color And has good taste, Sumatra. Some experts said Man Healing and Angola coffee from Java Taste better than Blue Mountain and Kona.
India has a unique flavored coffee named Monsooned Malabar.
- Ethiopia 1 in 4 of the country’s population earns from the coffee industry. The coffee here is unique because of the mixed coffee in the forest. But this also causes the taste to be highly uncertain as well The famous coffee is Harrar Longberry, Sidamo and Kaffa.
- Kenya is very meticulous in quality. The highest quality coffee is “Kenya AA”.
Vietnam is the 3rd largest exporter of coffee in the world.
- For Thailand, Robusta coffee is grown by 98%, most of which is grown in the South such as Krabi and Chumphon. Another 2% is Arabica coffee, which is grown in many mountains in the north. The most famous Thai coffee is Doi Chang Coffee. Which is planted on Doi Chang Chiang Rai province Considered as coffee from the production process that meets international standards. And good taste comparable to world-famous coffee