Why was there no literary prison in the Yuan Dynasty
Why was there no literary prison in the Yuan Dynasty? The first is that Mongolians have strong cultural self-confidence. Secondly, the Mongolians are relatively simple in thinking and believe that other ethnic groups pose no threat to the horseback ethnic group.
Regarding the Yuan Dynasty, the impressions in the minds of ordinary readers may only have the following keywords: massacre, chaos, four-class system… Some people say that the Yuan Dynasty was a dark age in Chinese history. In fact, the Yuan Dynasty also had its advantages in governance. For example, there was no literary prison in the Yuan Dynasty.
Generally speaking, when ethnic minorities enter the Central Plains, they tend to pay more attention to the writings of Han intellectuals, and be wary of them ridiculing their people and inciting nationalist sentiments. The Qing Dynasty is famous in the annals of history because of the many words such as prisoners, Hu, barbarians, and barbarians. These cruel literary hells reflect the cultural inferiority in the hearts of the rulers. Their “born” is not decent, like the scars on Ah Q’s head, they must never be mentioned. But this was not the case in the Yuan Dynasty.
The “Secret History of Mongolia” written by the Mongols nakedly recorded a large number of “shadows” of the Mongol ruling family. For example, in order to fight for a little food, the father and son and brothers on the grassland will kill each other; in difficult times, the old and the sick at home will be abandoned and so on.
Genghis Khan’s ancestor “Duo Benmei Ergan” traded a piece of meat for a slave. After his death, this slave and his wife “Alan Huo A” gave birth to three children, one of which was the ancestor of Temujin. .
Dobenmogen’s wife has five children, and the youngest is the direct ancestor of Genghis Khan. Peduan Chaer was still young. After her mother died, the four older brothers immediately divided up her mother’s livestock and food, leaving nothing to the young Peduan Chaer. When recording these things, the Mongols did not feel that there was anything to hide.
Mongolian histories written by other peoples, such as “Histories” and “History of World Conquerors”, also have many records that seem to be very taboo today. For example, the descriptions of the brutal massacres of the Mongols in the process of conquering are quite detailed, but the Mongolian rule The readers also disagree.
Let’s take a look at the names of the Mongolians translated in the Yuan Dynasty. For some reason, the Chinese characters that are not very elegant are usually chosen, such as timid, black, bald, 孛, old, ugly, shu, 剌, 篾, tooth and so on. The eldest son of Bo Duan Cha’er, the ninth ancestor of Genghis Khan, was translated as “Eight Lin Xi’s black, bald, bald, and must-have animals”.
In addition, the names of Mongolians are also translated as “big ugly”, “huo Li not flower”, “we daer”, “moli bald flower”, “bald ha”, “eight begging out”, and “chou guli bald”. “Speaker, I can translate it almost as weird as it sounds, but no one in Mongolia seems to take this seriously.
The Mongols, who took the world on horseback, had formulated many tough policies to guard against Han Chinese, but the methods were not feminine.
The Yuan Dynasty literary network is sparse, and there are very few deep literary works. “At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, people from the southeast emphasized poetry society.” After the fall of the Southern Song Dynasty, the survivors’ gatherings and associations became popular. Huzhou City) and other places are full of poetry societies.
The survivors often miss the homeland in their poems and criticize current affairs. For example, Lin Jingxi used to be an official in the Southern Song Dynasty. After Yashan’s change, he abandoned his official position and returned to his hometown. He set up a poetry club in Kuaiji. “When I met the survivors, I was old in the rest of the mountains and water, shaking hands and shaking hands, and couldn’t bear to go, and I was sent to a song with the love of things to express the meaning of “Mai Xiu”.” Among them, there are many people with fierce debates and eloquent rhetoric. However, no one in the Yuan generation was persecuted because of associations and gatherings.
In the Yuan Dynasty, some people tried to create a literary prison, but they did not succeed.
In the early Yuan Dynasty, Liang Dong, a celebrity, liked to travel around the mountains and water. One day, he wrote a long poem on Maoshan Da Maofeng. The poem was written in general, but it did reveal some sadness and sadness. Just as he was going up the mountain, Liang Dong quarreled with the Taoist priests on the mountain because of trivial things like renting a Taoist temple. After the Taoist saw this poem, he reported the poem “Slander of the court, with the heart of thinking about Song”, and reported it to Jurong County, which Maoshan belongs to, and Jurong County immediately reported it to the court.
Just when the Jiangnan literati was anxious about Liang Dong’s destiny, a verdict was conveyed from the Ministry of Rites: “The poet chants his temperament and must not be slandered. If it is slander, it is not something that the dignified celestial dynasty cannot tolerate.” , Liang Dong was acquitted, entangled in the Jiangnan travels.
How confident and open-minded this sentence is. If Liang Dong was born a few hundred years earlier, he might have become a victim of the “Wutai Poetry Case” like Su Shi; if he was born a few hundred years later, Maoshan’s “Poetry Disaster” might evolve into another “Nanshan Collection” case. “. Later, Wang Shizhen, who was under the dictatorship of the Ming Dynasty, said that he was stunned by the breadth of the national law net.