What are Antidepressants?
What are medications for depression?
Things you should know
- Depression is a psychiatric disorder that makes people unable to live normally. They will suffer from depression, insomnia, pessimism, lack of concentration, anxiety, no appetite, and, most seriously, suicide.
- Usually people with depression need to take medication for more than 6 months to balance neurotransmitters. And to prevent the disease from returning Some patients may need to receive medicine for more than 1 year.
- Antidepressants are divided into first and new groups, but have the same purpose: Absorbs substances that cause depression, such as North Epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin.
- Medicines that the doctor will choose for each patient. Must be consistent with the symptoms, which are divided into two groups: a decrease in positive emotional state And symptoms of negative emotions increased
- You must follow your doctor’s dosing instructions strictly. And must not stop the drug itself Because of the effects of drug discontinuation It can make you more negative thoughts and even more serious about suicide. (See a doctor’s consultation package about stress
Depression is a psychiatric disorder that found the top. And is another reason for the loss of many human resources Because people with this disease may not be able to lead a normal life. Whether it is working Learning Or even doing various daily activities and what is frightening of this disease is When the disease progresses to a severe stage It may lead to self harm. Or can kill yourself.
Taking antidepressants is a popular treatment used in patients with depression. This is because the drug balances the neurotransmitters in the brain that play the main role in mood regulation. As a result, symptoms of depression subside, which are:
- Noripinephrine substance (Noradrenaline)
- Chemical dopamine ( Dopamine, ).
- Chemical serotonin ( the Serotonin ).
Antidepressants work to improve the mood of patients. Less sadness, better sleep, more concentration. Feel more craving for food But in some patients Your doctor may also prescribe medication along with psychotherapy.
Additionally, antidepressants may be used to treat the disease. Or other symptoms As the doctor sees fit, including:
- Anxiety symptoms
- Agitation restless
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder ( OCD )
- Social phobia
- Bipolar disorder or bipolar disorder
- Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD )
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD )
- Eating disorders
- Bed-wetting symptoms
- Neuropathy pain from pathologies in the nervous system.
- Fibromyalgia (muscle, ligament and soft tissue pain syndrome )
- Hot flushes on the body
- Pre-menstrual symptoms
- Chronic urticaria
Antidepressants How is it necessary?
The key goal of depression treatment is to help the patient recover from an existing condition, meaning the condition is asymptomatic. Or have very few symptoms And able to return to normal life
However, only about 30-35% of patients reach this point. Because it takes a long time And relying on consistency Patients diagnosed with First time suffering from depression Therefore, it is necessary to continue receiving the drug for at least 6-9 months or up to a year to balance neurotransmitters.
There are different types of medications used to treat depression. Each of which has the same mechanism of action to balance neurotransmitters. But that mechanism may differ.
- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
It is a drug with mechanism of action by inhibiting the activity of Monoamine oxidase (Monoamine oxidase), an enzyme used to convert the neurotransmitters that have amine structures (Amine) into non- Be active
When this enzyme is inactive As a result, there are enough neurotransmitters to act on the stimulation of the nervous system, part to regulate mood. Which is effective in treating depression
- Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
It is the first antidepressant that is still widely used today. This group of drugs inhibits the absorption of neurotransmitters Noripinephrine. And serotonin returned to nerve cells Causing neurotransmitters to stimulate more receptors in the brain
These drugs can be classified according to the chemical structure of the drug as …
- Type Amines Tertiary (Tertiary amine) include amino trips Tylenol ( Amitriptyline ) it is dazzling Min (Imipramine) Nicole Smith dazzling Min (Clomipramine) Dr. Jose Pinto (Doxepin) and Tri. Mipramine (Trimipramine)
- Type secondary amines (Secondary amine) , including the North’s Tylenol ( Nortriptyline ) and has a dazzling dB. (Desipramine)
A new generation of antidepressants
A new generation of drugs used to treat depression includes a broad range of drugs. By classifying the drug’s action on each neurotransmitter as follows:
1. Pharmaceutical Group, a Selective the Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors (the SSRIs).
It works primarily by inhibiting the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin. And inhibits the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter Norpinephrine. And a small amount of dopamine Examples of drugs in this group include
- Sir John Tralee ( sertraline ).
- S. Prairie City Talo m ( escitalopram ).
- Fluvoxamine (Fluvoxamine)
- Vortiocetine (Vortioxetine)
Each drug has its own side effects. Bioavailability of the drug And the distribution of different drugs in the body Causing each patient to respond differently to each drug.
2. Selective Serotonin -Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
It works by inhibiting the absorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin. And norphinephrine return to nerve cells Patients can tolerate these drugs better than the first generation drugs. It is the next drug of choice for treating depression. Examples of drugs in this group include:
- Venlafaxine (Venlafaxine)
- Teen see Seattle ( Duloxetine ).
- Desvenlafaxine ( Desvenlafaxine )
3. Noradrenergic Dopaminergic Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs)
For patients who did not respond to other antidepressants These drugs will be used as complementary drugs to help the patient get better. There is only one drug in this class, Bupropion, which works by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitters nordinephrine and dopamine.
They may also be used as an alternative therapy for patients who show symptoms of indifference. Or exhaustion
4. Noradrenergic Reuptake Inhibitors (NaRI)
These drugs inhibit the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter norphinephrine. Examples of drugs in this class are reboxetine and atomoxetine. (Atomoxetine), but when comparing the efficacy of this drug It was found to be less effective in treating depression than SSRIs.
5. Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antagonist (NaSSA)
It is a group of drugs that have a different mechanism of action than other drugs mentioned above. This has led to the introduction of drugs to help sleep without disturbing the quality of sleep. But may have side effects causing weight gain Due to the mechanism of action of the drug Examples of drugs in this group include
- Mercury Taza climb ( Mirtazapine ).
6. Serotonin Antagonist / Receptor Inhibitor (SARI)
It is a drug that acts by inhibiting the reabsorption of serotonin neurotransmitters like SSRI drugs and blocking properties of certain receptors. It has properties that are different from those of SSRI drugs causing drowsiness when taken. Help patients sleep better.
This group of drugs is recommended for insomnia patients. The medicines in this group include Travel Association’s (Trazodone).
It is a drug that is recognized as a treatment for depression in European countries. The active drug mimics the substance melatonin in the body. Therefore, it is useful in treating patients with depression who have insomnia.