An overview of the historical development of Sunni
Sunni (Arab: أهلالسنة Ahl As-sunnah, English: Sunni), one of the main sects of Islam, the full name is “Sunna and Popular School”. The number of Muslims accounts for more than 85% of the world’s Muslims, and they are called two different political and religious sects together with Shia.
“Sunni” is a transliteration of Arabic. The original meaning is “the one who obeys the Sunna”, that is, “the one who follows the tradition”. Most Muslims are Sunni. The school has four major schools of teaching: Hanafi School of Teaching, Marek, Shafeiyi, and Hanbury School.
Sunni is a faction that holds certain doctrines within Islam, and together with Shia, it constitutes the two major factions of Muslims.
After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 632, the Muslim sects (the Mecca who moved with Muhammad to Medina) and the Auxiliary sects (the Medina who became religious during Muhammad’s life) had different opinions on the issue of the caliphate. , Both sides believe that people of their own faction are the most qualified to serve as caliphs.
Finally, after negotiation, Abu Bakr was promoted as the first caliph. This is the first reflection of the divisions within Islam.
In 656, the third caliph Osman was killed. Ali succeeded the caliph. This was recognized by most people. However, some people, including Mu’awiyah of the Umayyad tribe of Syrian governor at the time, refused to recognize Ali’s caliphate status. Thinking of Osman’s revenge, he asked Ali Xingshi. As a result, the Sui-Fen war broke out between the two sides.
In 657, in the Battle of Sui and Fen, the victory obviously belonged to Ali, but he accepted the request of the other party to negotiate with the Quran. About 12,000 people in Ali’s team resolutely opposed Ali’s leadership, thus breaking away from Ali’s leadership and forming Ha Valigi.
In 661, Ali was killed by a Havaligi believer. Mu’awiyah established himself as a caliph and established the Umayyad dynasty. But the struggle is still going on, and two major factions of Islam have gradually formed: the one that supports Ali is called Shia, which means sect; the other is Sunni, which means “observe Sunna (that is, the Sunnah).”
At first, this was a political faction. Later, in the course of the struggle against the Havaligi faction and Shi’ite faction, the faction established its own political ideological system, and later in the long-term dispute with the Murta Chilai faction. , Gradually established its own doctrine, philosophical thought and teaching system, so that the initial political faction turned into a religious faction.
The social foundation of Sunni was initially limited to Muslims of the various tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. Later, with the continuous expansion of the Arab Caliphate, it also included Muslim communities of other language groups attached to the Arab nobility, such as the Iraqis of the Mesopotamia, the Persians of West Asia, the Turks of Central Asia, the Indians of South Asia, and the people of North Africa. Berbers, etc., formed a multi-ethnic group of the same faith.
In history, this faction has been dominant in politics and ideology for a long time. There have been the Wumayye Dynasty (661～750 AD), the Abbasid Dynasty (750～1258 AD), and the Ottoman Empire (1298～AD 1298～AD). 1922) and other large-scale Islamic countries and local Islamic regimes around the world have a wide-ranging and far-reaching influence.
But it wasn’t until the 10th century that Sunni was formally formed under the name “Sunni”.
Sunnis were practiced by the central authorities of Islamic countries in successive generations. They were successively adopted by the Umayyad dynasty, the Abbasid dynasty, the Seljuk dynasty (1055-1157 AD), and the Ayub dynasty of Egypt (1171 AD). 1250), the Mamluk Dynasty (1250～1517 AD), the Ottoman Empire, etc. were designated as state religions, which were officially supported and spread widely, so they were called “Orthodox”.
The Muslims of the two sects of Sunni and Shia have coexisted peacefully in many countries, such as Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Senior scholars and religious leaders agreed to communicate with each other and participate in activities in each other’s mosques, allowing them to follow Imams of each other worship and intermarry each other.