What is the difference between Sunni and Shia?
Among Muslims, about eight are Sunni and two are Shia. Most Shiites are Iranians.
The two factions have actually fought for thousands of years. Both sides are like killing their fathers and enemies, killing your whole family at every turn. Their division and love, hatred, and feud, must start after Mohammed’s death.
The Caliph is the supreme ruler of the Arab empire. The title is similar to the emperor, but he also serves as the religious leader of all Muslims, which is an empire that combines politics and religion. After Muhammad’s death, because he did not specify who is the heir, a conflict broke out within the Arab Empire, who is the orthodox caliphate.
Simply put, Sunnis hope that the successor will be elected by the sages. The Shia believe that only the descendants of Mohammed can do it. Although the first three caliphs were all Sunni, they were recognized by most Muslims including Shiites, so there was little conflict between the two factions.
During this period, the Muslims captured Egypt and Syria in one fell swoop, the Sasanian dynasty that annihilated Persia, brought the Persians under the jurisdiction, and turned into an Arab empire with a huge territory.
In 656, the third Caliph Osman was assassinated, and everyone elected the fourth Caliph Ali. He was the cousin of Mohammed, and he married Mohammed’s daughter and became his son-in-law. It became the caliph with the most pedigree recognized by Shiites.
At this time, the Syrian governor Mu’avia was the cousin of the third Caliph Osman and the leader of the Sunni faction. Both he and Amur, the governor of Egypt, opposed Ali as the caliph. At this time Ali occupies the Arabian Peninsula, and Iraq and Iran are still very powerful.
At this time, the Arab empire was divided into three major forces, and the civil war was about to break out. Later Muavia took out a blood coat and told the world: This is the blood coat of my uncle Osman. The murderer is Ali, and we want to avenge him.
Under this wave of operations, the hatred between the two sides finally reached its peak in 657. Civil war broke out in the Arab Empire, and the two sides fought in Syria. Obviously Ali’s army is relatively strong. Just when Muavia was about to be defeated, the Egyptian governor came up with a strategy.
He first asked the soldiers to pick the “Quran” on the spear, and asked Ali to accept Allah’s verdict and elect a common caliph through negotiation. Many of Ali’s subordinates were devout Muslims. They did not listen to Ali’s explanation and demanded a truce. Everyone sat down. Talking, Ali reluctantly accepted the request. In the final arbitration, both parties must give up the position of the caliphate, and the caliph will be elected later.
Therefore, Muavia escaped from the dead. At this time, the main station of Ali’s army was quite dissatisfied. They felt that Ali’s decision was stupid enough to hand it over. They believed that only the victor on the battlefield was the person approved by Allah and left Ali directly. This faction became the later Havaligi faction.
Sunni and Shiites now have another Havaligi. The Havaligi faction felt that Muavia and Ali were both sources of chaos in the Arab Empire, but the frontal Havaligi faction could not defeat the two factions, so in 661, a large number of assassins were sent to assassinate.
As a result, the assassins ordered to assassinate Muavia may not be of high level and did not succeed. But the assassin sent to assassinate Ali succeeded in killing Ali. Now it’s good. Don’t you want to re-elect the Caliph? Without his opponent, Muavia quickly calmed down the opposition in the empire and ascended to the throne of the Caliph.
Founded the Five Maia Dynasty. The failed Ali family moved to Maijiana under the threat of Muavia and waited until the next caliphate.
In 680, Muavia passed away. The second generation of his son Muavia came to power, and the Shiites were quite upset at this time and felt that they were being tricked. It’s not like a good recommendation, how come it has become a descent inheritance. Therefore, Hu Sheng, the son of Shiite leader Ali, refused to recognize the legitimate caliphate status of the newly inherited Mu’avia II.
At this time, Kufa, the Shiite base camp, the capital of Iraq during Ali’s reign, expressed to Hu Sheng that he was willing to support him in fighting for the position of the caliphate. Hu Sheng then set off for Kufa, but Muavia II sent an army to intercept him. Hu Sheng and his 72 men were wiped out. Since then, Sunnis and Shiites completely broke off, and forged an unshakable feud.
The death of Hu Sheng united the Shiites and determined to oppose the Sunnis to avenge Hu Sheng. Because Hu Sheng married the princess of the Sasanian dynasty of Persia, most of the Persians supported Shiites. More importantly, they also wanted to get rid of the rule of foreign Arabs and rebuild their Persian empire.
The Persian Empire has existed for thousands of years. It has its own writing, beliefs and culture. Arabs are just natives who came out of the desert, but they have big muscles and force us to believe in Islam. Even if Persia accepts Islam, they will not be like the Arabs. It is Sunni, but Shia with a spirit of resistance.
Therefore, today’s Iran highly retains a high degree of Persian culture, and has not assimilated the Arabs in Mesopotamia. The conflict between the two factions has lasted for thousands of years.
Now Iran is the leader of Shiites, and Saudi Arabia is the leader of Sunni. In addition to religious differences, more are actually fighting for the right to speak and regional hegemony and economic and political interests in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is backed by British, American and Western forces, while Iran is backed by Russia.
Therefore, the grievances between the two countries from history to today can be said to be the haze of war lingering over the Middle East region, which will not dissipate for a long time.