Asia

Fanjing Mountain History

The Fanjingshan or Mount Fanjing, located in Tongren, Guizhou province, is the highest peak of the Wuling Mountains in southwestern China, at an elevation of 2,570 m. The Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve was established in 1978 and designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1986. Wikipedia

Fanjing Mountain is a famous cultural mountain with a history of more than 2,000 years in the southwest. As early as the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, Fanjing Mountain belonged to the “Guizhong Prefecture” of the Chu Kingdom, the “Qianzhong Prefecture” of the Qin Dynasty, and the ” Wuling Prefecture ” of the Han Dynasty . It has always been the sacred mountain and holy mountain worshipped by the “Wuling Man” .

Ming Longqing between years to the mid-Ming Dynasty (1567 –1588 years), after the Ming government crackdown east of fanjingshanensis “Prince Seoul mountain Hmong uprising” began to build in the area “South of the Great Wall,” and the destruction of the Vatican The first reconstruction of Jingshan Buddhism: In addition to rebuilding the ancient Xiyan Temple and Tianma Temple, according to the (Daoguang) “Yinjiang County Chronicles”, the Xiaoci Temple, Tianqing Temple, and Tianchi Temple were newly built.

In addition, Fanjing Mountain was restored. Jinding Ancient Tea Hall at the Old Golden Dome, and the Sakyamuni Palace and Maitreya Hall at the New Golden Dome, and at the same time widen the Tianchi Temple-Bodaoling-Scissor Gorge-Jinding Ancient Tea Hall-Xinjinding Sakyamuni Hall and Maitreya Hall West Chaoshan Avenue. In the first year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1573), the Jinding “Yuandao Stele” records in detail the reconstruction of Lei Xuegao in Yinjiang County.

In the twenty-seventh year of Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (1599), Yang Yinglong , the chieftain of Bozhou, Guizhou, rebelled, damaging Fanjing. In the forty-sixth year of Wanli (1618), the monk Miao Xuan, a high-ranking Buddhist monk, asked Ming Shenzong to rebuild Fanjing. The five temples and six halls were reconstructed this time: Cheng’en Temple, Tianchi Temple, Sanqing Temple , Sakyamuni Temple, Tongming Temple, etc. The “Early Gift Stele” was standing next to the Tongming Hall and became the “Stele of Zhenshan” on Fanjing Mountain. The reconstruction of Fanjing Mountain has formed a pattern of “one main hall, four imperial temples, six big foot temples, and four ancient temples surrounding the mountain”. The monasteries determined the properties, recruited monks, and repaired Buddhist scripture towers. Fanjing Mountain was named Zhenyu in favor of the emperor, and its incense flourished for a while.

During the Wanli period in the Ming Dynasty (1563-1620) and the Kangxi period in the Qing Dynasty (1654-1722), Fanjing Mountain was sealed twice by imperial emperor, and the government was required to protect Fanjing Mountain as “one main hall, four imperial temples, and 48 big foot temples.” At the end of the Qing Dynasty, a “dusiyamen” was set up for protection.

During the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty (1654-1722), Fanjing Mountain was re-appointed and rebuilt. Huang’an Tianchi Temple was named ” Huguo Temple ” and became the largest temple on Fanjing Mountain. The Buddhism of Fanjing Mountain regained its prosperity, forming a three-legged trend with the famous southwestern Buddhist mountains Emei Mountain and Jizu Mountain .

During the Kangxi and Qianlong period, Fanjing Mountain expanded the Ming Dynasty “one main hall and four imperial temples”, and added the “six big foot temples” to the “forty-eight big foot temples”.

Jiaqing first year (1795), Songtao Miao chief Shi Liu Deng and Xiangxi Wu August were “Qian Jia Uprising”, Liu Shi Deng’s death, rebel remnants persist in areas fanjingshanensis up to 12 years. During the Daoguang reign, Fanjingshan was rebuilt for the fourth time: the Jieying Hall was changed to Tianen Temple (1822), and the Tongming Hall was changed to Baoen Temple (1832). The Xiaoci Temple (1832) was expanded, and the golden-top Maitreya and Guanyin bronze statues were rebuilt.

In the fifth year of Xianfeng (1855), the “Xiantong Uprising” broke out in Guizhou, and Zhao Zilong, the leader of the “Red Army” in Tongren, established a base in the Triangle Village of Fanjing Mountain. In the first year of Guangxu (1875), Liu Sheng, the remaining part of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Army, pretended to be a Qing army and entered the mountains with guns to slay monks and nuns and looted everywhere. In the fifth year of Guangxu (1880), the five members of the Fanjing Mountain Ring Group practiced and compiled the “Songtao Association Zuoying Army Training”.

The new governor of Guizhou Cen Yuying personally led the army to supervise Liu Sheng, and the following year (1881), Liu was purged. Win. After the suppression of the “Red Army” and Liu Sheng, Fanjing Mountain was severely damaged and devastated. In order to strengthen precautions, the governor Cen Yuying asked to build a “dusiyamen” at the Huguo Temple in Huang’an, known as the “National Guarding Administration”, to exercise military control over Fanjing Mountain for 30 years. The establishment and adjustment of the “two counties and one capital” effectively prevented the recurrence of chaos and ensured normal worship activities at Fanjing Mountain.

Starting in the sixth year of Guangxu (1881), under strict military control, Cen Yuying ordered Monk Longshen to preside over the reconstruction of Fanjing. The Cheng’en Temple in Huang’an was rebuilt, and the Governor of Yungui Cen Yuying’s “Changsheng Fulu Tablet” is enshrined in the temple . Around the 22nd year of Guangxu (1896), the fifth reconstruction of Fanjing Mountain was completed.

Geographical Environment

Fanjing Mountain is located in the middle of Tongren area, at latitude 27°49′50″-28°1′30″ north latitude, 108°45′55″—108°48′30″ east longitude, in Yinjiang County and Jiangkou County , Tongren City , Guizhou Province The junction of 3 counties in Songtao County (southwest), close to Yinjiang County, southeast of Jiangkou County , and southwestern Songtao County. It is the main peak of Wuling Mountain in the east extension of Yunwu Mountain System. Its body was formed between 1 billion and 1.4 billion years.

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