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Why did the shogunate rule in Japan?

Japanese shogunate politics is a kind of central government agency in ancient Japan, similar to China’s “holding the emperor to order the princes”. At that time, the most powerful person was the General Zhengyi, also known as the Shogun, who controlled the actual power. This kind of system in Japan began in 1185 and ended in 1867, lasting for a total of 682 years. The shogunate in Japan has experienced three eras, namely, the Kamakura shogunate, the Muromachi shogunate, and the Edo shogunate.

The founder of the Kamakura shogunate was Genyizashi, who was born out of Hanoi by the Qing and Genji. Genyizhao’s family is actually very miserable. His grandfather Gen Weiyi and several uncles were killed during the Baogen Rebellion, and his father Genyizhao And several elder brothers were defeated in the Heiji Rebellion, and Gen Yoshizhao himself was exiled to the country of Izu by the Heike who controlled the government.

Fortunately, the place of exile of Genyizhao was not far from his father Genyizhao’s former site in Kanto. In this place, Genyizhao gradually became mingled with his father’s Lang Dang. Later, the Kiyoshi and Genji Settsu of Kyoto, Yuan Raizheng and King Ihito raised troops to resist the Hei family and they were defeated. The Hei family sent his retainers to Kanto to capture the remnant of the King Ihito, and the Yuan Rai dynasty was forced to revolt against the Hei family.

Ashikaga Takashi was dissatisfied with Emperor Daigo’s policy of despising the interests of the samurai, and rebelled in 1335 and occupied Kyoto. The Emperor Guangming was appointed as a puppet, and the Muromachi Shogunate was opened in Kyoto in November. At this time, the Japanese court had existed in name only. The shogun is governed by the shogunate, and assists the shogun. The Ashikaga shogunate is the guardian daimyo Shiba, and the Muromachi shogunate is actually a powerful coalition government centered on the shogun to protect the daimyo.

The size of the territories under the jurisdiction of the generals is not as good as the generals in the early Kamakura period in terms of military power. In subsequent competitions, the power of Oda’s letter has surpassed other warring states. In 1568, he entered Kyoto. In 1573, the Muromachi Shogunate was destroyed, and Japan slowly embarked on the road of unification.

After the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the expedition to North Korea, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who kept a low profile, was able to gradually usurp the Toyotomi regime, becoming the most powerful person in the world and accepting the emperor’s canonization as a shogun of the shogunate. The Edo shogunate (the Tokugawa shogunate) was established in Edo, although the shogunate regime established by these samurai is still surrendered to the emperor in name, because the generals of the past dynasties must have the blood of the royal family and nobles, and they need to be canonized by the emperor! But the shogunate actually controlled the military and political power of Japan, and it was the highest ruling power in Japan. The emperor had no choice but to overthrow the shogunate many times. They all ended in failure and were often intimidated and threatened by the shogunate.

Then, the Tokugawa regime in the Edo period called itself the “shogunate”, but the Kamakura and Muromachi eras were also called the “shogunate” by the samurai regime, which is even later. In the early days of the Meiji Restoration, this kind of saying did not exist. For example, Fukuzawa Yukichi’s “Summary of Civilization Theory” used terms such as “Kamakura government” and “Muromachi government”. The replacement of “government” with “shogunate” was a set of textbooks published in 1890 and edited by the Faculty of Literature at Tokyo Imperial University called “Manuscript Country History Eye”. After that, the concepts of “Kamakura Shogunate” and “Muromachi Shogunate” that have been used today.

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