Why are there so many Earthquakes in Iceland?
Iceland, the westernmost country in Europe, the Republic of Iceland. Iceland is located at the confluence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. It is the country with the smallest population density and is located in the westernmost part of the country. Iceland is in an active volcanic seismic zone with very frequent geological activities.
From the topography of Iceland, Iceland is surrounded by mountains on the coast. The middle part is a plain. There are also plateaus and terraces. The coastal area of Iceland is mainly sandy beaches. In addition, there are more than 100 tables of volcanic soldiers in Iceland. The terrain is not suitable for planting crops because it is all volcanic rock and cannot be cultivated.
Because of its high latitude, Iceland has freezing all year round and the climate is cold. However, due to the activeness of volcanoes and the large number of volcanoes, Iceland has many hot springs, which are called an island of ice and fire.
The reason for the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in Iceland is that Iceland is located between the American plate and the Asia-Europe plate. The crust is active and geological activities are frequent, which leads to frequent earthquakes. Iceland has too many volcanoes and frequent volcanic activities, which is also related to the frequent occurrence of earthquakes .
The entire Iceland is a bowl-shaped highland, surrounded by coastal mountains and a plateau in the middle. Most of them are terraces, the height of the terraces is mostly between 400-800 meters, and individual peaks can reach 1300-1700 meters. The highest peak in Iceland is the Warnadalshnuk Mountain (2119 meters).
The area of lowland is very small. There are marine plains and glacial water alluvial plains in the west and southwest. The plain area accounts for about 7% of the island. The coastline without glaciers is irregular, with many fjords and small bays. Other coastal areas are mainly sandy beaches, with sandbars off shore forming lagoons.
There are more than 100 volcanoes in Iceland, and Warnadalshonuk Volcano is the highest peak in the country with an altitude of 2,119 meters. Almost the entire country of Iceland is built on volcanic rocks, and most of the land cannot be cultivated. Volcanic activity on the southwest coast from 1963 to 1967 formed a small island of about 2.1km². Iceland is the country with the most hot springs in the world, so it is called the “land of ice and fire”.
Since the late Early Miocene, it has been formed by the accumulation of upper mantle material overflowing from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Rift, and belongs to a volcanic island. The rocks that make up Iceland are volcanic rocks, with basalt being the most widely distributed, as well as andesite and rhyolite.
There are many volcanoes on the island, known as the “Fire Island of the Polar Circle”. There are 200-300 volcanoes and 40-50 active volcanoes. The main volcanoes are Laki, Huanadals, Hekla and Katla, etc. Iceland has the highest number of hot springs in the world. There are about 250 alkaline hot springs on the island, and the largest hot spring can produce 200 liters of spring water per second.
Since the 5.6 magnitude earthquake struck the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland on February 24, there have been continuous aftershocks in the area. In the past 20 days, more than 40,000 earthquakes have been recorded.
The volcanic disaster coordinator of the Iceland Meteorological Agency (IMO) said: “We have never seen so much seismic activity.” Icelandic authorities have previously stated that there may be a small-scale volcanic eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
Experts predict that volcanic eruptions on the peninsula are not expected to spray large amounts of ash or smoke into the atmosphere. Lava may be ejected from cracks in the ground, forming spectacular lava fountains. Iceland is located between the Eurasian plate and the North American plate. Because the plate slowly drifts in the opposite direction at a speed of about 2 centimeters each year, earthquakes frequently occur in Iceland.