The historical development of rowing
Rowing is one of the traditional games of the Olympic Games. Rowing is a water sport in which one or more oarsmen sit on the boat with their backs facing the direction of the boat and use their muscle power to row through the simple leverage of the oars and oars to make the boat move forward. The boat can have a helmsman or no helmsman.
Rowing is mostly carried out in rivers and lakes and other natural waters. The air is fresh, the sun is full, and the nature is bathed. It can effectively improve the human body’s cardiovascular and respiratory system functions, strengthen the body’s muscles, and regulate the balance of the nervous system. Conducive to improving the health of the human body. The lung capacity of rowers occupies the first place in all sports, up to 7000 milliliters. Some people call rowing exercises lung gymnastics.
At the beginning of the rowing competition, the boats lined up after the starting line. After the starter gave the order, each boat was drawn to the finish line at the fastest speed, and the winner of the game was judged according to the order in which the first of the boats reached the finish line. In natural water competitions, weather conditions will have an impact on the results of the competition, and even the weather during the two groups of competitions will also change, so the results of the competition are not absolutely comparable. Therefore, there is no world record for rowing results.
Rowing originated in England. Boatmen on the Thames in the 17th century often held rowing competitions. In 1715, to celebrate the crowning of the King of England, a rowing race was held for the first time. In 1775, Britain formulated the rules of rowing competition, and the rowing club was established in the same year.
In 1811, Eton College held an eight-man rowing race for the first time. In 1829, Oxford University and Cambridge University held the inter-school rowing competition for the first time. The public is very interested in this kind of competition and there are many spectators. Later, a series of cup competitions were gradually added. Participants were not limited to the two schools. In addition to the United Kingdom, dozens of countries sent teams to participate. The rowing cup was held in 1839.
In 1846, the British installed oar frames on the side of the boat to increase the length of the oars and improve the rowing effect; in 1847, the outer keel boats with overlapping plates were converted into smooth inner keel boats, which increased the speed of rowing.
In 1857, Babcock in the United States invented the sliding seat, which allows athletes to move back and forth while paddling, which can effectively use the strength of their legs. In 1882, the Russians changed the closed oar bolt to a movable oar ring to increase the stroke range. In 1890, Britain formulated rules similar to modern rowing competitions.
In 1892, the International Rowing Federation was established in Turin, Italy, with 6 members at that time. The 1st European Rowing Championship was held that year. Since then, international rowing competitions have been organized under the leadership of the International Rowing Federation. The International Rowing Federation has member associations in 120 countries and regions. The headquarters of the International Rowing Federation was moved from Turin to Switzerland in 1923, and since 1997 it has been located in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The 1st World Rowing Championships was held in Switzerland in 1962, and 4 sessions were held until 1974. Since 1975, the World Championship has been held every year. There are more rowing sports. The World Rowing Championships established by the International Rowing Federation has 23 events, divided into 4 levels. Namely: Men’s Open and Lightweight; Women’s Open and Lightweight. Each level is divided into single oars and double oars according to the form of sports; according to the number of participants, there are single, double, four and eight people rowing; some events also have helmsman and no helmsman.
For simplicity, the names of each item are represented by a combination of letters, numbers and symbols: “M” for men, “W” for women, “L” for lightweight, numbers for the number of paddlers, and “×” for sculls, “+” means single propeller with coxswain, “-” means single propeller without coxswain. Therefore, rowing can be divided into 8 types of rowing events according to the number of oarsmen, weight, style of operation, and the presence or absence of helmsman.
The International Rowing Federation also organizes the World Under-23 Rowing Championships, the World Paralympic Rowing Championships, the World Cup Series and the World Veteran Rowing Championships.
Rowing was listed as an official event in the 1st Olympic Games in 1896, but it was temporarily cancelled due to bad weather. Rowing competitions were held at the 2nd Olympic Games in 1900, with 6 individual events. However, the rules of the game at that time were not perfect, and the distance, course and rules of the game were not clear. In 1934, the International Rowing Federation stipulated that the race must be held on a 2,000-meter straight track with a width that can accommodate at least 3 boat races.
Because the Olympic Games has set up rowing events and has more individual events, it has prompted all countries to attach great importance to rowing and promoted the development of this sport. The events of the previous Olympic rowing competitions have changed many times. See the table for details.
Beginning in 1976, women athletes were allowed to participate in the Olympic rowing competitions. The changes in the women’s rowing events of the previous Olympic Games are shown in the table. In the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, lightweight rowing competitions and new rules were introduced into the Olympic Games. Men’s and women’s lightweight rowing events were set up at the same time, and there were still 14 competitions.