Introduction to the Gorse Dynasty
The House of Plantagenet (House of Plantagenet), also known as the House of Anjou in France.
The royal family is a noble family that originated in Anjou, France. It ruled England since the 12th century. The first king of England was Henry II. In addition to the family’s original hereditary territory Anjube (1060–1203), the dynasty ruled the Duchy of Normandy (1144–1204 and 1415–1450), the Kingdom of England (1154–1485), The Principality of Kitan (1153-1453) once had a vast ruling territory from the Pyrenees to the Scottish border. Later generations referred to the Kingdom of England as the “Anjou Empire”.
There were eight official kings of the Gorse Dynasty, who ruled England from 1154 to 1399. After the death of Richard II in 1399, England was ruled by two branches of the dynasty-the Lancaster and York dynasties. The two families fought for the throne and the War of the Roses broke out in the second half of the 15th century.
During the Gorse Dynasty, British culture and art gradually took shape, and the poet Jeffrey Chaucer who could best express the spirit of medieval literature was in this era. Gothic architecture prevailed during this period, and the famous Westminster Abbey and York Minster were rebuilt according to this architectural form. Political and social forms are also developing. For example, the Magna Carta, which is very influential in the history of the Constitution, was signed by King John. The English Parliament and Model Parliament originated from that dynasty. More specialized educational institutions have also been established, including the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.
The political climate during the Gorse Dynasty was changeable, and the “Hundred Years War” here was a representative historical event.
“Gorse” is the nickname of Henry II’s father, Geoffroy V, Earl of Anjou. It is said that Geoffroy put gorse on his hat. Until the middle of the 15th century, Richard, Duke of York, named “Gorse” as his surname, after which “Gorse” was used as a synonym for the Geoffroy family of Anjou.
War of the Roses
The War of the Roses (also known as the War of the Roses; English: Wars of the Roses; 1455-1485) is the support of two descendants of King Edward III (reigned 1327-1377): the Lancaster family and the York family In order to fight for the throne of England, there were intermittent civil wars.
The two big families are branches of the royal family of the Gorse dynasty. The York family is the descendant of the fourth son of Edward III, and the Lancaster family is the descendant of the third son of Edward III. The War of the Roses is the third and fourth heirs of Edward III of the York family (patrilineal: Edmund of Langley)/fifth and sixth heirs (matriline: Lionel of Antwerp) against Lan The battle for the throne of the fourth and fifth heirs of Edward III of the Castel family.
The term “War of the Roses” was not used at the time, but in the 16th century, Shakespeare used two roses to be pulled up as a sign of the beginning of the war in the historical drama “Henry VI”, and then it became a common term. The name comes from the family crests chosen by the two families, the red rose Rosa gallica from Lancaster and the white rose Rosa × alba from York.
The war finally ended with the marriage of Henry VII of the Lancaster family and Elizabeth of York. It also ended the rule of the French Gorse dynasty in England and opened a new Welsh Tudor dynasty. It also marked the end of the medieval period in England and the beginning of a new Renaissance era.
In order to commemorate this war, England used the rose (here, the rose is actually the ancient European rose) as its national flower, and changed the royal emblem to the red and white rose.
The end of the dynasty
In 1485, Henry Tudor was crowned king as Henry VII, ending the rule of the Gorse dynasty and its branches, and creating the Tudor dynasty. The following year, Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV. Although Henry VII belonged to the Lancaster school, it was far-fetched (no inheritance rights), but it symbolized the capital of the Lancaster family and the York family. The duo rose originated from this.
In 1487, someone pretended to be Edward Gorse, the heir of the York dynasty, the 17th Earl of Warwick, and the remnant supporters of the York Party, such as the heir established by Richard III during his lifetime, and his nephew John de La Boer, Earl of Lincoln. Initiated a rebellion, but was defeated at the Battle of Stoke and was suppressed by Henry VII.
In 1499, the 17th Earl of Warwick was executed by Henry VII, and the male descendants of the Gorse Dynasty were severed; in 1541, the daughter of the first Duke of Clarence, the Countess of Salisbury was accused of treason by Henry The eighth life was executed, and the blood of the gorse family was cut off.