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The historical evolution in the Duchy of Normandy

The Duchy of Normandy (French: Duchéde Normandie), originated in the 10th century. In 911, King Charles III (le Simple) of West Franconia (Charles III, le Simple, 879-929) gave the Norman peninsula of France to the leader of the Normans, Rollo (c. 860 ~ 931), and established Principality of Normandy.

Initially the territory included the province of Neusteria and a part of the north coast of Brittany, and was later divided into mainland France and the Channel Islands. The British still informally believe that the Channel Islands are still part of the Duchy of Normandy.

In 930 AD, Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy, died, and he left a rich legacy to his son. However, Normandy is still in the early stage of entrepreneurship at this time, and all aspects are waiting to be flourished. The future fate of the Normans will depend on how the descendants of Rollo exercise their ruling skills.

The son of Rollo, King Giyom I, ascended the title. During his short reign, he focused on suppressing the internal rebellion and opening up the territory of the Duchy of Normandy. Hehewei named him “Longsod”, that is, “Longsword Longsword”. “The nickname. Although the “Long Sword” Jiyom died young, his strengthening of the royal authority during his life laid a solid foundation for the smooth access to the throne of young children.

Richard I, who was only 13 years old, inherited the title. Unlike his brave and wary father, Richard, who ascended to the throne at a young age, was unable to subdue everyone through Kong Wu’s powerful appearance and martial arts. He was good at diplomacy and internal affairs and relied on power skills. His prestige has achieved many achievements that could not be achieved with force, and he has firmly held the supreme power of the Principality for 49 years.

Diplomatically, Richard, through careful design and long-term preparation, vigorously supported the ambitious nobleman Hugo Capet to win the seat of the Frankish king, and once and for all overthrew the Carolingian dynasty hostile to the Duchy of Normandy. Through the establishment of friendly relations with the emerging Capay dynasty, the border security of the Principality was obviously strengthened. In internal affairs, Richard vigorously strengthened the church building in the principality.

He rebuilt monasteries and churches destroyed by war and civil strife, divided multiple dioceses in the country, and introduced prestigious monks from Europe to preach. Since the church was the absolute monopoly of educational resources at the time, Richard’s measures to revive the church also promoted the improvement of the aristocracy’s literacy skills, and the historical records of the Duchy of Normandy became clear.

The reign of Richard I was a watershed in the early history of the Principality. His greatest achievement was to use political skills to make the Normans, who had only recognized muscles and admired “strongman politics”, realize the importance of legality and political order, and thus domesticated the country. Those restless nobles, effectively maintained the stability of the Principality. Of course, the Scandinavian tradition of admiring the strong still remains partially in Normandy. In Normandy, as long as you are strong enough, even the illegitimate son of the ancestor can successfully ascend to the throne, which is unimaginable in other European countries. .

Richard I was dubbed the “Fearless” because of his reign, and his illegitimate son Richard II came to the throne after his death. The greatest historical achievement of Richard II is that he married his sister to King Ethelred II of England through his marriage with the Wessex dynasty of England on the other side of the Strait. Through this political marriage, Richard II won the support of Paris and London at the same time. Now the King of France is his friend, and the King of England is his brother-in-law. The two Christian powers are allied with the Duchy of Normandy at the same time. The Normans are in Christianity. The identity and importance of the world has been further highlighted.

When Richard II died, the Duchy of Normandy had become the most powerful region in France under his governance. His youngest son Robert inherited the title shortly after the death of his elder brother. Not long after he reigned, Robert gave up the title and went to Jerusalem for a pilgrimage, leaving his illegitimate son William, who was only 8 years old, in charge of the country. By 1066, the Conqueror of the Duke of Normandy William became King of England, and since then, all British kings have enjoyed the right to rule the Channel Islands.

After the Hundred Years’ War, the continental part of the Duchy of Normandy was incorporated into the French royal family, leaving only the archipelago. Today, the Principality of Normandy only has the Channel Islands (Channel Islands), with a land area of ​​194 square kilometers and a total population of 156,115 people.

Nowadays, the Duke is concurrently appointed by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. Public defense and foreign affairs are managed by the United Kingdom, but they are not part of the United Kingdom.

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