How long did the Lancaster dynasty last?
House of Lancaster, the young branch of the gorse royal family. In the 15th century, three English kings appeared-Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI. The name of this family first appeared in 1267 when Edmund (1245-1296), the youngest son of Henry III, was made the Earl of Lancaster.
Among the sons of Edmund’s second wife Artois’ Blanche, two people inherited this title: Thomas the Earl of Lancaster (1322) and Henry the Earl of Lancaster (1345) . When Henry’s son Henry, the 1st Duke of Lancaster (1361) died, there were only two heiresses. The eldest daughter Maud is married to the Duke of Bavaria with no success. So Lancaster’s succession was attributed to the second daughter Brownchet and her husband John of Gunter.
After Gunter’s death in 1399, his son Henry of Lancaster deposed Richard II and established himself as king, called Henry IV. After he came to the throne, the duchy of Lancaster was incorporated into the royal family, so Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI represented the Lancaster royal family to rule England for more than 60 years.
When Edward III was alive, the black prince (the eldest son of Edward III) was the heir. But this person is relatively short-lived, at least not surviving his father. Edward III lived 67 years old, while the black prince only lived 46 years old, and died a year before his father died. So the succession to the throne became a problem, and then Richard, the only surviving son of the black prince, succeeded as the eldest grandson of the king, and John of Gunter (the third son of Edward III) was unhappy.
But John of Gunter failed to become king, and the task of seizing the throne was entrusted to his son Henry to complete. Richard II was dissatisfied by the nobility, so Henry used Richard II’s expedition to Ireland to launch a coup and seize power. Richard II was imprisoned and later died. Because Richard II had no heir, Henry succeeded to become Henry IV. Because he was the Duke of Lancaster, this dynasty is also called the Lancaster dynasty.
War of the Roses
Red and white roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485), or the War of the Roses, usually refers to the support of the House of Lancaster and the House of York for the throne of England Intermittent civil war. Both families are branches of the Plantagenet royal family and are descendants of King Edward III of England. The War of the Roses was not the name used at the time. It was derived from the family crests chosen by the two royal families, the red rose from Lancaster and the white rose from York.
Henry VI of Shakespeare marked the beginning of the war with the plucking of two roses in Temple Garden, London. Most of the war was fought by an army of horse knights and their feudal entourage. The supporters of the Lancaster family are mainly in the north and west of the country, while the supporters of the York family are mainly in the south and east. The massive casualties of the nobles caused by the War of the Roses were one of the main reasons for the weakening of the noble feudal power, leading to the development of a powerful centralized monarchy under the control of the Tudor dynasty.
The Lancaster dynasty ruled through three generations of three Henrys, namely Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. Henry V also won the great victory of the Battle of Agincourt. However, under the leadership of Charles VII, the French gradually recovered their disadvantages and eventually expelled the British from France except Calais. The Hundred Years’ War also brought a great burden to the British people. With the gradual defeat of the war, all kinds of dissatisfaction also came. Moreover, when Henry VI succeeded to the throne, he was still young, and he didn’t know how to deal with government affairs.
In 1455, the War of the Roses broke out. The York family of white roses openly opposed the Lancaster family of red roses. At first it seemed that the king had the upper hand, and Anne Montimo’s son Richard died in battle. As a mockery, the body of Richard, Duke of York, was hung on the tower with a paper crown. But the good times did not last long, and Henry VI was captured and executed in 1470. Later Queen Margaret was also killed. So the Lancaster family is finished. Edward IV, the son of Richard, the former Duke of the York family, became king. After the death of Edward IV, his son Edward V succeeded to the throne. But Edward V was soon thrown into the Tower of London by his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and then disappeared. Edward IV’s younger brother Richard became King Richard III. This caused the division of the York family.