What should be paid attention to in agriculture during the summer solstice
During the summer solstice, agricultural production in most parts of southern China was due to the vigorous growth of crops and the rapid growth and spread of weeds, diseases and insects, and entered the field management period. The plateau pastoral areas began the golden season of grass, fat and livestock. At this time, the amount of rain in the western part of South China has increased significantly, and the distribution of rainfall in the east and the west in the south since the beginning of the spring has gradually changed to more in the west and less in the east. If there is a summer drought, it is generally expected to be relieved at this time.
In the past 30 years, although the number of large-scale floods in the western part of South China in late June has been small, the severity has been relatively serious. Therefore, special attention must be paid to flood prevention preparations. The summer solstice solar term is the solar term with the highest annual rainfall in the eastern part of South China. In the future, it is often controlled by the subtropical high pressure and there will be summer droughts. In order to enhance the ability to resist drought and win agricultural harvests, in these areas, grabbing rainwater before storage is an important measure.
“But it’s not hot in the summer solstice”, “Three heads in the summer solstice.” Astronomy stipulates that the summer solstice is the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere, but the surface receives more solar radiant heat than the ground anti-radiation heat, and the temperature continues to rise, so the summer solstice is not the hottest season of the year.
About twenty or thirty days later, it is generally the hottest weather. After the summer solstice, it enters Futian. The temperature in the north is high, the sun is sufficient, and the rain increases. The crops are growing vigorously, and the weeds and pests grow rapidly and spread. Therefore, field management needs to be strengthened.
Around the summer solstice, early rice heading and blooming in the south of the Huaihe River, water management in the field requires sufficient water heading, moist filling, dry, dry and wet, which not only meets the water needs of rice for fruiting, but also can breathe and grow roots to ensure that they are ripe to grow old and increase grains. weight.
As the saying goes, “Summer seedlings will not be allowed to grow.” Summer seeding should be done quickly, and the seeding should be strengthened to manage all seedlings. After emergence, the seedlings should be fixed in time and transplanted to make up for the deficiency.
During the summer solstice, all kinds of farmland weeds grow very fast like crops. They not only compete with crops for water and fertilizer and sunshine, but also host many kinds of germs and pests. Therefore, the farmer’s proverb says: “Summer solstice does not hoe the roots and edge grass, just like raising a poisonous snake. Biting.” Grasping the middle tillage and hoeing is one of the most important measures to increase production during the summer solstice.
Cotton is generally budding, vegetative growth and reproductive growth are both prosperous. It is necessary to pay attention to timely trimming of branches, cultivating soil and cultivating soil. In areas with a lot of rain, clear ditch and drainage work in the field should be done to prevent waterlogging and storm damage.
“After the summer solstice, the hoe can’t rest.” It is necessary to strengthen summer field management without losing the opportunity to remove weeds in time, prevent and control diseases and insect pests, apply appropriate fertilizers in a timely manner, sow late rice in time, and cultivate late rice seedlings. At the same time, do well in the management of tea and orange gardens, such as pest control and grass laying, and fertilization outside the roots.
June has entered summer, and the monthly average temperature is between 25℃～26℃. Most fruits and vegetables in the shed have been pulled out, and the sick and leftovers in the shed should be cleaned up to reduce the diseases of the next crop; this period of open vegetables has entered the harvest period. At this time, the wheat in the Central Plains region has been harvested, and some heat-resistant and disease-resistant vegetable varieties are selected for timely sowing. Two months later, they can enter the harvesting period to make up for the off-season of autumn vegetables in August and September. The main farming issues in vegetable fields this month include:
- Grasp the summer cucumber planting. Pay attention to treating the seedlings with ethephon or Zenggualing in time at the 2~4 leaf stage to promote the differentiation of flower buds and promote early fruiting and more fruiting.
- Grow summer cabbage, summer cabbage, and summer cauliflower. Early-maturing cauliflower seedlings are raised in late June and harvested before the National Day and Mid-Autumn Festival. Vegetable prices are generally higher during this period.
- Raise celery seedlings. The celery grown in the autumn greenhouse can be cultivated in mid-to-late June. This period is the hot and rainy season. It is necessary to sown after low temperature accelerating germination, and pay attention to shade and rain. Use “oxadiazon” to seal the weeds.
- Generally, the spring open watermelon planted at the end of April enters the melon-setting period at this time. Before setting the melon, you must strictly pay attention to proper water control and nitrogen fertilizer control, and strictly prevent the growth of the watermelon to facilitate the watermelon. The watermelon expands and strives for a high yield of watermelon. In this period, pay attention to the prevention and control of aphids and prevent watermelon virus disease.
From the end of 5.6 to the beginning of July is the key period for growing pepper seedlings in greenhouses after the fall. At this stage of raising seedlings, pay attention to shade, rain, and prevent pests and diseases. The multi-layer covered peppers in the Yanqiu greenhouse can delay the harvest of red fruits until the Spring Festival, and the benefits are better. 6. Plant green onions. The green onion seedlings bred in the autumn equinox of last year or in March and April should be planted firmly after cutting the wheat, and take root before entering the fall to ensure a good harvest. Some areas also have the habit of raising green onion seedlings during this period.
- Utilization of greenhouses. In June, the vegetables in the greenhouse will be planted one after another. The greenhouse can be treated as follows:
– Plow the ground deeply to mature the soil.
– Cover the arch frame with sunshade nets and roll up the shed film for ventilation, and plant heat-resistant spinach and coriander.
– Plant small ditch onions or spot corn to improve the soil. For fields with root-knot nematodes, attention should be paid to prevention and control work during this period. After the previous crops are harvested, turn over 30cm deep, and ridge the ridge, the height of the ridge is 30cm, irrigate to a flat border, then cover with mulch, hold the greenhouse and heat it to above 40℃, keep it for 10-20 days to kill nematodes The effect is obvious.
- Do a good job of clearing the ditch and draining water. In case of continuous rain, ditch drainage should be strengthened, the groundwater level and field humidity should be reduced, and the time for vegetables to accumulate water should be minimized to promote the normal growth of roots.
- Use rain-proof cultivation. Preventing excessive soil moisture can effectively reduce the occurrence of diseases and ensure high and stable vegetable yields. Insect nets can be used in combination with conditions, and isolation nets are covered around the shed, which can basically eliminate the need for insecticides.
- Strengthen field management. Timely remove old leaves, diseased leaves, diseased fruits, remove diseased plants, and timely remove concentrated treatment; increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, topdressing urea thin fertilizer to enhance growth potential, promote root growth, and delay the time to market; due to long-term field accumulation Watery and premature vegetable fields should be ploughed, loosened and weeded.
- Strengthen the prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests. Use medicines in a timely and reasonable manner, choose the correct medicine, time, concentration and method of medicine, and pay attention to the alternating use of medicines. Highly toxic and high-residue pesticides are strictly prohibited.