The meaning of Lixia
Lixia (Beginning of Summer, 立夏, Lì Xià) is the seventh solar term in the twenty-four solar terms in the lunar calendar. It is also the first solar term in summer, signifying the beginning of the hot summer. In astronomy, Lixia means the end of spring, and the beginning of summer. People usually consider Lixia as an important solar term. When it comes, the temperature rises obviously, and summer heat arrives, there is a remarkable increase in thunder storms, and crops enter their peak season for growth.
Lixia is the first solar term in summer in the twenty-four solar terms, which signifies the official start of the Mengxia season. When the sun reaches 45 degrees of the yellow longitude, it is the Lixia solar term. The bucket refers to the southeast, Wei is Lixia, and everything has grown up here, hence the name Lixia. The Lixia solar term was established at the end of the Warring States Period (239 BC).
“Moon Order Seventy-two Hou Ji Ji Jie”: “Li Xia, April Festival. Li Zi Jie sees spring. Summer is fake. Things are fake and big at this time.”
In astronomy, Lixia said that it was about to bid farewell to spring, which was the beginning of summer. People used to regard Lixia as an important solar term when the temperature increased significantly, the summer heat was approaching, the thunderstorms increased, and the crops entered the peak season to grow.
In fact, according to climatological standards, the 5-day average daily temperature stably rises above 22°C as the beginning of summer. Before and after “Li Xia”, only the area south of the first line from Fuzhou to Nanling in China is truly “green and cloudy summer.” Long, the terrace reflects into the pond” in summer.
And parts of the northeast and northwest have just entered spring at this time. The average temperature in most parts of the country is around 18-20°C, which is the mid-spring and late spring seasons of “all kinds of red and purple flowers”. In the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the climatic temperature during the beginning of summer is roughly close to the climatological standard, and this area is the origin of the twenty-four solar terms.
From this point of view, it is in line with the actual situation to regard Lixia Festival as the beginning of summer in the 24 solar terms. In May, Sophora japonica is also blooming in many places. In the beginning of summer, everything flourishes.
Lixia is divided into three quarters.
“The first time the grasshopper calls.” The grasshopper is also called toad, which is a kind of frog. At this time frogs began to sing for food in the fields and ponds.
“Earthworms emerge in the second tempo.” As the underground temperature continues to rise, the earthworms crawled from the ground to the ground to breathe fresh air.
“Three-time King Gua Sheng”, Wang Gua is also called Tugua, which has already grown up and matured at this time. Qing Qianlong’s “Xinzheng Yixian County Chronicles” contained: “In April, Wang Gua was picked and sold at the beginning of the year.
“Yi Zhou Shu · Shi Xun Jie” said: “On the day of the beginning of summer, the worms cried. Another five days, the earthworm came out. Another five days, Wang Gua was born.” That is to say, the first prions can be heard in this solar term (ie: The chirping of grasshoppers in the field (one is the sound of frogs), and then you can see earthworms digging on the ground, and then the vines of Wanggua began to climb and grow rapidly, describing the phenological scene of the early Mengxia.
The Ming Dynasty “Liansheng Baji” wrote: “On the day of the beginning of summer, heaven and earth will begin to cross, and everything will show up.” At this time, the summer crops are entering the late stage of growth, winter wheat blooms and blooms, rape is nearing maturity, and the summer crops are basically foregone. Therefore, there is a saying in the farmer’s proverb that “Look at Xia in the beginning of summer”.
The management of rice planting and other spring crops has also entered a busy season. Therefore, our country has attached great importance to the Lixia solar term in ancient times. According to records, during the Zhou Dynasty, on the day of Lixia, the emperor personally led hundreds of civil and military officials to the outskirts to “welcome the summer”, and instructed Situ and other officials to go to various places to encourage farmers to hurry up and cultivate.
Lixia is still a traditional ritual and custom festival. On the day of Lixia in the Zhou Dynasty, the emperor will lead the three gongs and nine qings and all the doctors to the southern suburbs to welcome the summer and hold a ceremony to worship the first emperor Zhu Rong.
The Han Dynasty also inherited this custom. The Book of the Later Han Dynasty: The History of Sacrifice: “The Day of Li Xia welcomes the summer, in the southern suburbs, worship the Chi Emperor Zhurong, the car and flag costumes are all red.” Song “Zhu Ming”, dance “Dance of Clouds and Wings” “. In the Song Dynasty, etiquette became more cumbersome. “Taste new customs” began in the Ming Dynasty. The Qing Dynasty “Emperor Jing Sui Shi Ji Sheng” contained: “Li Xia takes the spring buds of rice noodles that are usually exposed to the sun, and fry them with sugar flour to make various fruit stacks, and feed them to each other.”
There is also the custom of eating flower rice in Lixia in the Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas, and there is also the “eat tonic”. There is also a folk custom that “eat eggs in Lixia, and the stones will be smashed.” It is said that eating eggs and duck eggs in Lixia can enhance physical fitness and endure heat. Some Lixia eats bamboo shoots, and some Lixia drinks wine. They all rush to the festival on this day. The name is “Lixia sees three new things.” In the southern part of the country, there used to be summer days. Every family steamed new tea and served them with various fruits as gifts to relatives and neighbors. .
The ancients believed that the three months of Lixia (Mengxia, Midsummer, and Jixia) were the busy seasons for farming, so this season was also called “three summers”. At this time, the vegetation is luxuriant and the growth is vigorous, and there are more diseases in the summer season, often with fatigue, weak limbs, less food and slight heat, and sometimes heat can hurt the breath. This situation is often caused by high labor intensity, high temperatures, and insufficient rest. Therefore, attention should be paid to adjusting diet, reasonable arrangements for agricultural production and labor, timely replenishment of water, ensuring sleep, and adapting to the requirements of “long-term care” in summer. Protect physical and mental health.