Introduction to Bashu Food Culture
Among the folk customs of Bashu, its unique food culture is world-renowned. Among them, the custom of drinking tea is an important part of the Bashu culture. Sichuan teahouses, which are well-known at home and abroad, have a long history and are scattered throughout the towns, villages, streets and alleys of Bashu. The unique way of drinking tea and the unique tea set in Shuzhong have aroused the interest of many Chinese and foreign tourists. As a cultural phenomenon, it embodies the constant tradition and charming charm of the ancient Bashu culture, and embodies the special life interest of the Bashu people.
Bashu is the birthplace of the world’s tea-drinking culture. The earliest records of tea-growing, tea-drinking, and tea-selling in the world are all in Bashu. In the Western Han Dynasty, the Sichuan-funded Chinese scholar Wang Bao wrote in “Tong Yue” that “there is a guest in the house. , Lifting the pot to taste… …there are all the utensils for cooking tea, but it is hidden.” This is the earliest clear record of the Shu people drinking tea.
In this “Children’s Agreement”, it is also mentioned that “Wuyang buys tea”, Wuyang is now Pengshan, which shows that there was already a market for tea business in western Sichuan at that time. Wu Lizhen, who grew tea in Mengshan Mountain, Mingshan County during the reign of Emperor Xuan of the Western Han Dynasty, is the earliest known tea planter. The Shangqingfeng Tea Garden he built on the top of Mengshan is the world’s earliest artificial tea plantation. The ruins of the garden and the remains of Wu Lizhen’s stone room still exist.
In the Western Jin Dynasty, Zhang Zai went to Baitulou in Chengdu and wrote the world’s earliest tea chanting poem, admiring the nobility of Shu tea; The so-called “Liu Qing” refers to the six kinds of beverages used by ancient people. Zhang Zai said that Chengdu’s aromatic tea surpassed the “Liu Qing” and ranked first among all kinds of beverages. This shows that the people in Bashu area enjoyed the prosperity of tea drinking during the Wei and Jin Dynasties.
Chengdu is the birthplace of “Gaiwan Tea”, and “Gaiwan Tea” is the most prominent feature of Chengdu tea culture. The so-called “gaiwan” includes three parts: tea lid, tea bowl and tea boat. The tea boat is also called the tea boat, which is the saucer that bears the tea bowl. According to legend, during the Dezong period of the Tang Dynasty, Xichuan Jiedu made Cui Ning’s daughter invented the “Gaiwan Tea” in Chengdu, which became popular after that, and it remains unfailing today.
Both ancient and modern, Bashu is an important tea producing area in China, and tea has been used as a tribute very early. The famous Mengding tea is the representative of Bashu Jiaming, and the saying “the Yangtze River is in the middle of the water and the tea is on top of Mengshan” can be said to have been passed down through the ages. Shu tea has also been the main supplier of the “side tea” that has developed the “tea-horse trade” since the Song Dynasty. For thousands of years, it has provided huge quantities of tea to the ethnic minority areas in the west, which contributes to the exchange and stability of the big family in the motherland. Made an important contribution.
A large number of pottery and bronze wine vessels unearthed from the Sanxingdui cultural site in Guanghan during the Yin and Shang dynasties indicate that the Shu people have a long history of drinking. 177 lacquered wine wares were found in the Qingchuan Warring States Tomb. Many lacquer wares were marked with “Chengting”, which were produced in Chengdu. Bashu lacquered wine vessels made in Chengdu and Guanghan have been found in Xindu, Yingjing, Chengdu, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, as far as Lelang County (present-day Pyongyang) in North Korea and Nuoyin Wuna, Mongolia. The extensive use of lacquered wine vessels is a characteristic of Bashu culture.
It is recorded in the literature that during the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, the king of Shu Kaiming made liquor, which belongs to the category of sake and has a particularly mellow taste. In the Han dynasty Bashu drinking was popular, and there were many wine shops and restaurants in various places. The beautiful story of “(Sima) Xiang is like a purifier, (Zhuo) Wenjun is the lord” is about the incident of Linqiong in the early Han Dynasty. The “wine-making pictures” on the Han Dynasty portrait tiles in Pengzhou and Xindu, and the two characters “Gan Sa” engraved on the pottery jars of the Han Dynasty tomb in Fenghuang Mountain in Chengdu, all show the grandeur of Bashu wine culture.
After the Tang Dynasty, the Bashu winemaking industry developed rapidly. The “Shengchun Wine” of Chengdu in the Tang Dynasty is a famous tribute, and the “Shaochun” of Jiannan is the source of the famous Chinese wine “Jiannanchun” today. The discovery of the site of Quanxing Winery in the early Ming Dynasty on Shuijin Street, Chengdu City not only fills China There are no cultural relics in the early history of liquor production, and it provides physical evidence for the continuous development of Sichuan liquor. Bashu has many fine wines since ancient times. Today, the six national famous wines represented by Wuliangye, Luzhou Laojiao, Jiannanchun, Quanxing Daqu, Langjiu, and Tuopai Liquor are well-known throughout the country, and Bashu has also won the “Hometown of Famous Liquor”. The good name.
Sichuan cuisine is one of the four major cuisines in China, with a long history and a long history. In the Song Dynasty, “Chuan Shi” was already quite famous, and “Chuan Restaurant” has opened to Kaifeng and Hangzhou today. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a large number of foreign immigrants have entered Sichuan, and many of them have brought the cooking customs of the north and south to Sichuan. This has made the famous chefs of Tianfu gather together, and the cooking skills of the north and south have formed a unique culinary art.
As early as in “Huayang Guozhi·Shu Zhi”, the characteristics of Shu people mentioned were “savory taste” and “good spicy fragrance”. This kind of tradition for many years has made Sichuan cuisine the biggest feature of “one dish, one style, a hundred dishes and a hundred flavours”. The seasoning is rich and light. On the one hand, it is rich in taste, rich in taste, wide in taste, and strong in taste. On the other hand, it has the advantages of elegant and light freshness. It can blend the conflicting hot and cold flavors in one place. It has the characteristics of blending north and south flavors. The art of taste has developed to the extreme.
Sichuan cuisine not only pays attention to raw materials and techniques, but also special attention to seasonings. Among them, the four seasonings of Pixian Douban, Yongchuan (or Tongchuan) tempeh, Zhenglu pepper, and red pepper (also known as fish hot pepper) are not only indispensable, but also It is impossible to replace it with other products, otherwise, it will not be able to achieve “Sichuan taste authentic.”
Sichuan cuisine has gone through thousands of years, so far there have been more than 3,000 varieties and hundreds of famous dishes. Nowadays, Sichuan cuisine not only spreads all over the country, but also has long been famous all over the world.
In the hundred gardens of Bashu food culture, there is also a cluster of fragrant flowers, which are snacks with unique flavors and a wide range of varieties. There are more than 500 kinds of Sichuan snacks known today, and Chengdu snacks are the most famous, such as Long Chaoshou, Lai Tangyuan, Zhong Shui Dumplings, Han Baozi, Ye Erba, Steamed Steamed Cake, Steamed Beef in Xiaolong, Zhang Duck, Zhang Laowu Jelly, dandan noodles, egg-baked cakes, etc.
Chengdu famous snacks have enjoyed a high reputation as early as the Qing Dynasty. There is a “Zhuzhi Ci” saying: “Where is the Rixie play, Yanleju is the same as Liuheju. Three big money to buy flowers, cut cakes and ghost legs chaotic. In the morning, a bowl of sweet porridge, and then eat vegetable soup and noodle tea. Cold cakes, fried cakes, ears, hanging oven sesame cakes Ai Wowo. I just bought the fork fire, and I heard the hard noodles are called 饽饽. The siu mai won stew is full of plates, and the new glutinous rice balls are added.”