Why is there more and more high blood pressure? How do I know if I have high blood pressure?
According to survey statistics, 1 in 4 adults has high blood pressure, and the incidence of high blood pressure will increase with age, and because there are no obvious symptoms in the early stage of hypertension, patients are no different from ordinary people, so hypertension Often described as an invisible killer of health, it is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, and cerebrovascular accidents.
Because high blood pressure does not have obvious symptoms, many people may not receive effective treatment. At this time, high blood pressure will accelerate vascular disease and cause complications in the brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and other organs. Therefore, people in middle age, People over 35 years old should check their blood pressure regularly. If you find that your blood pressure is too high, you need to control it to avoid complications.
In modern times, we know that high blood pressure is currently considered incurable, but it can be controlled within a reasonable range with the help of diet, exercise and drugs . Today we will talk about the problem of high blood pressure and how to control blood pressure in life and prevent it effectively. hypertension!
What is blood pressure?
Before we understand high blood pressure, let us first understand what blood pressure is. Everyone’s body is full of blood vessels. When the blood is pumped out by the heart, it will provide nutrients and oxygen to the body’s various organs and tissues through the blood vessels, and take away metabolic waste from the body. All of this is required. There is pressure that promotes blood flow, and this pressure is blood pressure.
Blood pressure is divided into systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure :
systolic blood – pressure refers to the blood pressure measured when the heart is contracted and blood is pumped out. Diastolic blood pressure refers to the blood pressure measured when the heart is relaxed and receiving blood backflow.
Definition of hypertension
The current blood pressure reference standards in my country are:
The blood pressure of a normal adult should be maintained at a systolic blood pressure of less than 120mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of less than 80mmHg. If the systolic blood pressure is higher than 140mmHg, or the diastolic blood pressure is higher than 90mmHg, as long as one of them exceeds the standard, it can be called hypertension.
However, it is not possible to diagnose the disease with a single measurement . If the first test exceeds the standard, it is best to do it again in a few days to eliminate the interference of other problems.
Hypertension is divided into 3 levels according to its blood pressure level. The systolic blood pressure of level 1 hypertension is higher than 140 but lower than 160mmHg, the diastolic blood pressure is higher than 90 and lower than 100mmHg; the systolic blood pressure of grade 2 hypertension is higher than 160 but lower than 180mmHg, diastolic blood pressure is higher than 100, lower than 110mmHg; Grade 3 hypertension is systolic blood pressure higher than 180mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure higher than 110mmHg. In addition, hypertension should also be staged according to its complications, which is conducive to a more precise understanding of the patient’s condition.
In 2017, the American Heart Association, more will hypertensive standard revised down to 130 / 80mmHg, so the definition of hypertension is more stringent, but at the moment there are no amendments to standards and still is 140 / 90mmHg based.
Three causes of high blood pressure
- Essential hypertension
Mainly caused by family genetics, environment or external factors, about 90% of hypertension patients belong to this type.
- Obesity and overweight, overweight will increase the burden of blood output from the heart , so blood pressure tends to be high.
- Smoking, because the harmful chemicals in cigarettes can cause inflammation of blood vessels, blood vessels are damaged for a long time, increase the viscosity of blood, cause hardening of blood vessels, and increase blood pressure.
- Lack of exercise, because exercise can reduce the stimulation of sympathetic nerves to small arteries , increase the area of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, but if you do not exercise for a long time, it may increase blood pressure.
- High-sodium (high-salt) diet. Excessive sodium will cause water and sodium retention . When the water in the blood increases, it will increase the burden on the heart to export blood and increase blood pressure.
- Drinking alcohol, alcohol will inhibit the metabolism of body fat and make people fat; it will also increase the incidence of vascular atherosclerosis, causing blood vessels to lose elasticity and blood pressure to rise.
- As we grow older, blood vessels will gradually lose their elasticity, which will increase blood pressure.
Second, secondary hypertension
Mainly caused by diseases, such as kidney disease, aortic stenosis, etc., these diseases account for about 10% of high blood pressure.
- Drugs cause high blood pressure
This type of problem accounts for a small proportion, and generally increases when taking certain drugs. Once the drug is stopped, blood pressure may return to normal. Such drugs include anti-inflammatory and painkilling ibuprofen , certain contraceptives , antidepressants, and some antibiotics . Therefore, if the patient has high blood pressure, he must pay attention to the side effects of the drug when taking the drug.
Generally speaking, when blood pressure slowly rises, there may be symptoms such as dizziness , headache, ear ringing, shoulder and neck pain, blurred vision , flushing of the face , numbness of the limbs, etc. If the symptoms are not too obvious, they are often easily overlooked. . So, how do you know if your blood pressure is high or not? If you belong to a high-risk group of hypertension, such as obesity, family history, etc., you can choose the correct blood pressure measurement method:
- Choose to measure every day a week
- Measure once after getting up in the morning and before going to bed at night
- Measure 2-3 times each time, with an interval of 2-3 minutes each time, and then take the average value to calculate.
It should be noted that if measured at home, once the systolic blood pressure exceeds 135 and the diastolic blood pressure exceeds 85, it is suspected of hypertension and must be checked in the hospital . If you have obvious symptoms, but your blood pressure measurement is below 135/85, you should also be vigilant. It is recommended to check and eliminate the problem.
What are the complications of hypertension ?
We all know the complications of diabetes is very powerful, in fact, high blood pressure and diabetes, as if long-term poorly controlled blood pressure fluctuation is too large, it is easy to cause some acute and chronic complications, some even fatal complications of possibility . Common complications include the following:
- Heart disease: left ventricular hypertrophy , myocardial infarction and heart failure, etc.
- Brain diseases: stroke or temporary cerebral ischemia
- Kidney disease: proteinuria , renal failure
- Vascular disease: atherosclerosis , aneurysm , aortic dissection
- Eye diseases: retinal artery occlusion or stenosis, retinal hemorrhage, macular edema, etc.
For hypertensive patients, the main way to avoid these complications is to restore blood pressure and avoid excessive fluctuations in blood pressure.
How is hypertension treated? Taking drugs and adjusting lifestyle habits
- Drugs for lowering blood pressure
There are currently seven different modes of action for blood pressure lowering drugs. Doctors will use appropriate drugs according to the patient’s condition:
alpha receptor blocker
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
Current clinical statistics show that if drugs are used to treat hypertension, the average stroke incidence can be reduced by about 40%; the incidence of myocardial infarction can be reduced by more than 20%; the incidence of heart failure can be reduced by more than 50%. Therefore, the drug is Treatment is a very important part of improving high blood pressure.
- Lifestyle to prevent high blood pressure
Earlier we said that about 90% of hypertension patients are caused by the environment or external factors. Therefore, in addition to medication, the change of living habits is also very important:
- Deshu diet
The Deshu Diet (DASH) is a dietary principle used to prevent and treat high blood pressure. The main method is to eat prototype foods to ingest more potassium, calcium, magnesium ions and dietary fiber . The fats ingested are mainly unsaturated fatty acids . The specific content includes: priority selection of the staple food of whole grain roots; fruits and vegetables every day ; reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids, mainly intake of unsaturated fatty acids; proper eating of nuts , reducing the burden on blood vessels.
It should be noted here that if the patient has kidney function problems, this method of diet is not recommended because it will consume too much phosphorus and potassium.
- Reduce salt intake
Eat more fresh, natural foods and use natural seasonings, such as star anise, onions, ginger, garlic, coriander and other ingredients for cooking, avoid pickling foods, reduce processed foods with high sodium content, and reduce the burden on blood vessels.
- Reduce alcohol consumption
Generally speaking, the daily alcohol intake is less than 30g for men and 15g for women. 15g of alcohol is roughly equal to 360ml of beer and 120ml of wine.
- Exercise regularly
Regular exercise can increase muscle endurance and improve cardiorespiratory function . It also helps relieve mental stress and maintain a stable blood pressure.
- Weight control
The body mass index (BMI) is controlled at around 18.5-23. Because weight gain will lead to an increase in blood pressure, which is positively correlated, maintaining weight within a reasonable range is also one of the ways to maintain blood pressure stability. But what needs to be understood is that it is important to control the body in the right way, combining diet and exercise.
6. Quit smoking
Smoking harmful substances into the blood can cause damage to blood vessels, reduce the oxygen concentration in the blood, and cause chronic hypoxia . In this way, blood viscosity increases and blood vessels further develop hardening, which leads to a decrease in elasticity and an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, quitting smoking can reduce the damage to blood vessels.
- Measure your blood pressure regularly
As people get older, blood vessels will gradually lose their elasticity. Therefore, even if people are not at high risk of hypertension, blood pressure should be measured regularly when they get older. Generally speaking, normal people should have blood pressure testing at least 1-2 times a year after 30.
If it is a high-risk group of hypertension, or a patient with high blood pressure, the blood pressure should be checked regularly according to the method we mentioned above.