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Where are the Mongolians distributed?

The Mongolian nationality is a traditional nomadic people mainly distributed in East Asia. It is one of the ethnic minorities in China and the main ethnic group of Mongolia. In addition, the Mongolians are also distributed in Asian and European countries such as Russia, and the Ewenki and Tu nationalities are sometimes considered to be branches of the Mongolian nationality.

The Mongolian population in China is mainly distributed in China’s Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. It is distributed in Xinjiang, Hebei, and Qinghai. The rest are scattered in Henan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Beijing and Yunnan. In addition, there are Mongolians in Mongolia, Russia, South Korea, Britain and other countries.

The Mongols originated from the east bank of the ancient Wangjian River (now the Erguna River). At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongolian Ministry headed by Genghis Khan unified the Mongolian tribes and gradually formed a new national community.

The Mongolian people live in the grasslands forever and live on animal husbandry. Living a nomadic life of “living by water and grass”, although this way of living has been weakened in modern society, it is still regarded as a symbol of the Mongolian nationality.

The early social economy of the Mongolians was mainly hunting and nomadism. Until the 13th century, the Mongolians still had the custom of “encircling hunting”. For a long period of time, the animal husbandry economy was the main socio-economic category of the Mongolian nationality. It wasn’t until the 16th century that the Mongolian people developed a farming economy that combined animal husbandry and agriculture on Pingchuan, where conditions were available for farming on both sides of the river. By the beginning of the 20th century, the regional economy of the Mongolians in various places could be divided into livestock areas, agricultural areas, and semi-livestock and semi-agricultural areas.

Genghis Khan period

The total population of Mongolian grassland during Genghis Khan period was about 1.7 million. When the Mongolian Khanate was formally established in Era 1206, minus the number of deaths from more than two decades of fighting, the total population of the Mongolian Khanate should be no less than 1.5 million. The total strength of the Mongolian army in the last years of Genghis Khan, Russian VV Bartod (VVBartol’d), has been verified to be 129,000.


According to the data of the sixth national census in 2010, the Mongolian population in China is about 6.5 million. The Mongolian population in China is mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. It is distributed in Xinjiang, Hebei and Qinghai. The rest are scattered in Henan, Sichuan and Guizhou. , Beijing and Yunnan.

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: Before 1949, the population of Inner Mongolia was at a stage of high births, high deaths, and low natural growth. After the establishment of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Government, the population of Inner Mongolia’s pastoral areas began to recover.

In 1961, the Statistics Bureau of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region announced that the Mongolian population had grown to 1.213 million, an increase of 45.79% over the growth of the autonomous region in 1947. Since then, due to food production, a large number of people have entered pastoral areas. From 1987 to 2000, the population in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia maintained a relatively gentle growth rate without major fluctuations. According to the 2010 census, the Mongolian population in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is 4,220,093.


According to the data released by the Mongolian National Statistics Committee on July 15, 2013, the Mongolian population is approximately 2.28 million.


There are approximately 900,000 Mongolians in Russia (2009 data). There are Buryat Mongols (about 400,000 people) and Oirats (including Kalmyks and Durberts) in Siberia.

other areas

South Korea: 34,000

United States: 15000–18000

Czech Republic: 7515

Japan: 5401

Germany: 3852

United Kingdom: 3701

France: 2859

Turkey: 2645

Kazakhstan: 2523

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