Rotterdam is a city in which country
Rotterdam is the second largest city in the Netherlands, with a population of 1.02 million including suburban areas. Rotterdam is located in the Dutch province of South Holland, on the banks of the Nieuwe Maas.
Rotterdam’s name comes from the small river Rotter that flows into the Nieuwe Maas in the city center and the Dutch word Dam (dam). Rotterdam has long been Europe’s largest seaport. In terms of container traffic, it was the world’s largest port in the 1880s and was the world’s 10th in 2010.
Rotterdam has risen and fallen several times in history. It was originally a fishing village near the Rotter River, which flows into the Maas River from the swamps of South Holland in ancient times. Rotterdam is named after the Rotter River. In 1250, a dyke was built on the north bank of the Maas River to separate the Rotter River from the Maas River with a gate. When William IV, Earl of the Netherlands, governed Rotterdam in 1340, he dug a canal to communicate with Delft and Leiden, and Rotterdam began to prosper.
Most of the city was destroyed by fire in 1563. Rotterdam was occupied and plundered by Spanish troops in 1572, and the Spanish retreated a few months later. At that time, many businessmen and craftsmen from Antwerp, Belgium settled in Rotterdam, bringing Rotterdam into a period of recovery and development.
In the 16th century, Rotterdam’s urban construction gradually developed, and many ports were excavated in the muddy land, laying the foundation for foreign transportation and trade. By the 18th century, Rotterdam’s foreign trade was more prosperous, focusing on trade with France and Britain. At that time, ships also sailed to Indonesia and the United States. By the 19th century, Rotterdam had become increasingly important in re-export trade.
Due to the unification of Germany in 1870, the industrialization of the Rhine region, especially the Ruhr region, enabled Rotterdam to develop accordingly. With the rapid development of the capitalist economy and the navigation of the Suez Canal, especially in 1877, the railway connected to the southern urban area and the construction of the new canal to the North Sea in 1895, greatly improving the transportation conditions.
After the war, the municipality began to implement a reconstruction plan and expropriated the entire destroyed area. The reconstruction of port facilities was completed in 1949, and maritime transportation was gradually restored. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Port of Botlake and the petrochemical zone were built. The Bell River, which was 23 meters deep, 400-600 meters wide, and 12 kilometers long, was excavated, and Europort Port was built. The area of the port and industrial zone expanded from 26.3 square kilometers to 100 square kilometers from the post-World War II to the mid-1970s, making Rotterdam the largest port in the world since 1961.
Rotterdam (latitude 51°55′, east longitude 4°29′) is the second largest city in the Netherlands, the largest port in Europe, and the west bridgehead of the Eurasian Continental Bridge (the east bridgehead is Lianyungang, China), located on the Rhine River in Europe Confluence with the Maas River. Rotterdam is located in the Dutch province of South Holland, on the banks of the Nieuwe Maas. It is the largest seaport in Europe, and until recent years it was even the largest seaport in the world.
The entire city is spread out on both banks of the Maas River, about 25 kilometers away from the North Sea, and is connected to the North Sea by a new waterway. The waters of the port area are deep and wide, and inland navigation vessels can pass unimpeded. The deep water terminal of the outer port can berth giant cargo ships and super tankers. Rotterdam’s name comes from the small river Rotter that flows into the Nieuwe Maas in the city center and the Dutch word Dam (dam). Rotterdam is an important port connecting the five continents of Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia, and is known as the “gateway to Europe”.
The urban area of the city is more than 200 square kilometers, and the port area is more than 100 square kilometers. The urban population has a population of 570,000, including 1.024 million in the surrounding satellite cities. Rotterdam is flat and located in a low area in the Netherlands, about 7 meters below sea level.
In April 2020, it was selected into the “2020 Global Summer Cities List”.