Mongolians in Modern Times
In modern times, Outer Mongolia became independent as Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia became the earliest autonomous region in China.
Tsarist Russia had territorial ambitions towards Mongolia in the 18th century. Its official publications once publicly claimed that Russia has a special mission in Outer Mongolia, and the Gobi Desert is the natural border of the empire’s Far East and Southeast.
However, at that time, the focus of Czarist Russia’s aggression was to swallow the entire Manchuria (Northeast China), and the invasion of Mongolia was still a secondary position. After the Opium War in 1840, especially when the Qing government was defeated by the British and French forces in 1860, Tsarist Russia forced the Qing court to conclude many unequal treaties, seized large areas of territory from China, and seized many privileges in Mongolia.
From 1904 to 1905, the Russo-Japanese War broke out on the Liaodong Peninsula. As a result, Tsarist Russia failed in the war with Japan to conquer Northeast China, and signed a secret agreement with Japan to divide the sphere of influence in Manchuria from the north and the south, and ceded South Manchuria to Japan in exchange for Japan’s recognition of its “special interests” in Outer Mongolia.
At the beginning of 1919, the history of Outer Mongolia took a major turning point. Affected by the Russian October Revolution, the leaders of the Mongolian People’s Revolution, Sukhbaatar and Horlo Chobashan, established two revolutionary groups in Kulun. Soon these two revolutionary groups merged into a unified revolutionary organization, the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party.
In the summer of 1920, in China, the direct warlords controlled by Britain and the United States defeated the ruling pro-Japanese Anfu warlords, which made Japan lose the conditions for conspiracy expansion in Mongolia.
Therefore, Japan decided to use the remaining troops that fled to northeast China after being defeated by the Soviet Red Army to seize territory for itself in Mongolia. In October of the same year, Baron Wen Ganlun entered Mongolia with a cavalry division composed of 800 soldiers. Taking advantage of the Mongolian people’s dissatisfaction with Xu Shuzheng’s military dictatorship, he won the support of Mongolian feudal princes and some people who don’t know the truth.
On February 3, 1921, Wen Ganlun’s bandits defeated the Chinese garrison and occupied Kulun. On February 15th, Wen Ganlun helped the eighth Jeb Zundamba to become the Mongol emperor again and established an autonomous government. The members of the government were appointed by Wen Ganlun.
On March 1, 1921, with the help of the Communist Party of Russia, the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party convened its first congress in Kyaktu, Russia. It discussed and approved “conduct an anti-imperialist and anti-feudal people’s revolution, liberate the nation, and The first program of struggle for the transfer of power to the masses of the people and the transformation of social life.
The independence of Mongolia was not recognized by the government of the Republic of China at that time. In 1924, the government of the Republic of China and the government of the Soviet Union signed the “Outline Agreement on Settling Outstanding Cases”, still stipulating that Outer Mongolia is part of Chinese territory and China enjoys territorial sovereignty. However, due to the outbreak of the Northern Expedition in China, the Beiyang warlords were busy fighting, and the negotiation to resolve the outstanding case was not over.
In May 1924, the eighth Jebzundamba died of illness. One month later, Mongolia abolished the constitutional monarchy, established a republic, and established the Mongolian People’s Republic. Since 1924, the Outer Mongolian government announced that it was closed to the outside world, severing all contacts with China.
Mongolia’s international status was established after the end of the Second World War.
In February 1945, the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union reached the “Yalta Agreement” on the Soviet Union’s participation in the war against Japan. In order to prompt the Soviet Union to force Japan to surrender, the United States and Britain agreed to the Soviet Union’s proposal to write “in Article 1 of the agreement.” The status quo of Outer Mongolia must be maintained,” and the United States promised to persuade the Chinese government to recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia in order to realize this clause.
In October 1945, the Kuomintang government sent Lei Fazhang, the Deputy Minister of the Interior Ministry to Outer Mongolia to “observe” the Mongolian people’s referendum on independence.
The voting began on October 10, 1945 and ended on October 20, 1945. There were 494,074 citizens participating in the vote, 489,291 in favor of independence, and the rest were abstentions. In other words, 99% of voters are in favor of independence. The Chinese Kuomintang government issued an official announcement on January 5, 1946, declaring the independence of Outer Mongolia.
On May 1, 1947, the Chinese Mongolians established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under the leadership of Ulanhu, becoming the earliest autonomous region established in China. Since then, nine autonomous prefectures and counties have been established one after another. Ulanhu was elected chairman.
The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949. After the Soviet Union recognized the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China and took the lead in establishing diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China, the People’s Republic of Mongolia established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China on October 16, 1949.
Around the 1990s, affected by the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern Europe, the Mongolian People’s Republic abolished Marxism-Leninism and changed its name to Mongolia. Politically, a multi-party system was implemented, a market economy was implemented economically, and the Soviet Union began to break away from the control of the Soviet Union for 70 years. People set off a wave of ideological restoration of national culture.