What is the Mongolian Philosophy?
In early Mongolia, due to low productivity, they did not understand natural phenomena and were dominated by nature, but they did not understand. Therefore, they worship natural objects and worship the mountains and rivers such as Hangai Mountain, Altai Mountain, Yili River, and Irtysh River. And give people the same life, have the will, be personified, transcend nature, and become a god.
From the beginning of various worships, no clear concepts have been formed. With the development of society, the expansion of the field of activity, the formation of the concept of animism in all things, associations are generated from specific knowledge, not only perceptual knowledge, but also rational knowledge and thinking The development of ability formed the early Mongolian social thought.
After the establishment of the Mongolian Khanate, Genghis Khan used the power of sweat to strengthen the power of sweat, and used the idea of longevity to realize its unity and conform to the trend of social development.
Until Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, further consolidating and perfecting the feudal monarchy system. In terms of hierarchy and Buddhist thought, it fully demonstrated the ability of people to understand the world at that time.
The book “The Secret History of Mongolia” reflects the consciousness of the times. They combined the Mongolian Khan and the Son of Heaven, thinking that the sky is the Buddha, and the Buddha governs the heaven. Mongolia Khan is not the child of the heaven, but the incarnation of the Buddha. It became the unity of Buddha and Khan, Buddha is eternal and supreme, and Buddhist thought gradually merged with the original social thought of Mongolia, and disintegrated the traditional Mongolian thought of worshiping heaven. This is also a major change in Mongolian political philosophy, marking the development of philosophical thinking.
There have been many scientists in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and science and technology in Mongolian history. Their works contain many philosophical thoughts. From their works, Mongolian philosophical thoughts can be reflected.
For example, Mongolian scientist Ming Antu is engaged in scientific research and believes that the object of his research is an objective existence, an objective law of nature. In his book “Cutting the Circle, Secrets and Shortcuts”, he does not regard finding the circle as a product of thought, but as a natural change, which is hidden deep in the external world. Although the book is a mathematical principle, it passes The specific mathematical practice, the interpretation that reflects the specific quantity of things, is extracted through scientific argumentation, and it is a materialist point of view. It also reflects Ming Antu’s simple dialectic thought.
The traditional Mongolian philosophy is a concentrated expression of the wisdom of the Mongolian nation and represents the highest level of theoretical thinking of the Mongolian nation. The Mongolian traditional philosophy can be divided into three stages from the historical perspective, namely, the main influence stage of the theory of destiny represented by “Eternal Life”, the influence stage of Han Confucianism and the influence stage of Lamaism philosophy.
The concept of “Eternal Life” is the core of Genghis Khan’s philosophy and the ideological foundation of the Mongolian Empire that he established. Destiny theory originated from the nomads’ belief in the natural god “heaven” in primitive society. With the division of classes, people have given the gods new responsibilities, from the past that only took care of people’s birth, old age, sickness, and death, and the protection of livestock and property from damage, to the ability to control the destiny of people and the rise and fall of the country.
From an ordinary natural god to an omnipotent and ubiquitous conceptual god, people have now changed from the past belief in practical purposes to spiritual dependence and value recognition.
The Nayan class represented by Genghis Khan made full use of this idea. For example, the birth of Genghis Khan’s direct ancestors was also the result of the gods who used light to penetrate the mother’s womb every night; because of the protection of heaven, Temujin escaped the enemy several times. The hunt and so on. The fate theory of the northern nomadic society realized that the Genghis Khan era developed into the concept of “eternal life”.
The idea of ”Heaven without two days and earth without two masters” derived from the concept of “Longevity and Heaven” is an important part of the Mongolian ancient feudal philosophy. In order to realize this ideal of “there is no two masters”, Genghis Khan devoted all his strength to conquering again and again, and the people believed that this was an act of obedience to God’s will.
Starting from the Yuan Dynasty, Mongolian traditional philosophy has been influenced by Han Confucianism. For example, Kublai Khan put forward the theory that “the one who ought to be loyal to the heavens is sincere, and the people who save the people are not as good as benefits”. This theory is the best example of the mutual influence of Mongolian and Chinese philosophical ideas. “Those who should be loyal to the sky” are an inheritance of the traditional Mongolian concept of “Longevity and Heaven”;
“A person who saves people is not as good as material benefits” is not only his philosophical thinking, but also his policy. From this, we can see the traces of the “benevolent government” advocated by Confucianism, which also reflects the traditional pragmatic spirit of the Mongolian nationality. Such “beneficial” “benevolent government” can indeed play a role in “saving the people”.
Lamaism philosophy has many influences on Mongolian traditional philosophy. It eventually led to the formation of the Mongolian traditional philosophical system. Although this system has not completely escaped the shell of religious theology, the establishment of Buddhist philosophical thinking is an important milestone in the history of traditional Mongolian thought and the development of the entire traditional culture. .
First of all, the doctrine of kingship in the philosophy of Lamaism has been rubbed into the concept of “Longevity Heaven”. At that time, the Mongols were most familiar with and more comprehensively expounding this kind of kingship theory is the classic “Altan Griletu”, which theoretically demonstrated the sacredness and obligation of kingship, and pointed out how to manage the country. Specific measures. If the Mongols only needed the protection of “heaven” in the past, now they need not only the protection of “heaven” but also the guidance of “heaven”.
As a result, new content has been added to the old concept of “Eternal Life”, and the sacred “Heaven” has a new “responsibility”.
In the past, the thought of “sweat power granted by heaven” was more cumbersome and refined, that is, the reason why sweat power was granted by heaven was because the foundation of sweat was India’s sweat, and India’s sweat was the incarnation of Buddha.
This kind of thinking played a centripetal role in the Mongolian society that was facing division at that time. Secondly, he formed his own philosophical concept about the universe. For example, in Gush Korzi’s “The Original Meaning Must Use Jing”, the material world is composed of atoms, which are invisible to the naked eye, and the first elements of the universe are earth, water, fire, air, and so on.
For another example, in his “Mongolian Origins”, Sa Nang Chechen made a general description of the formation of the universe from the point that the material world and the living world were organically unified. He believed that the formation of the universe is based on three main substances. -Air, water and soil. The void is the place where the world is formed.
Due to the violent movement of the Shifang Qi, an indestructible Qi are formed in the void. Then due to the aerodynamic heating, it generates generous, generous rain, forming the sea, which is called the water altar. Finally, dust on the water surface, such as grease on milk, the dust particles accumulate to form an earthen altar.
Under the enlightenment of Lamaism, the Mongols have begun to think about some basic issues of philosophy. Although it is not completely correct to measure with the current philosophy of science, it marks the initial formation of the theoretical system of Mongolian national philosophy. It also endows grassland culture with profound philosophical connotations.