唐卡（Thang-ga) is a Tibetan transliteration, referring to religious scroll paintings mounted on colored satin and hung for worship. Thangka is a unique painting art form in Tibetan culture. The subject matter involves Tibetan history, politics, culture, and social life. Most of the handed down thangkas are works of Tibetan Buddhism and this religion.
Thangka is a unique painting art form in Tibetan culture. With distinctive national characteristics, strong religious colors and unique artistic styles, it uses bright colors to depict the world of the sacred Buddha; traditionally all the paints are gold, silver, pearls, agate, coral, turquoise, malachite, and cinnabar. Such precious mineral gems and plants as saffron, rhubarb, and blue indigo are used as pigments to show their sacredness. These natural raw materials ensure that the painted thangka is bright and dazzling, even though it has been painted for hundreds of years, it is still bright and bright.
Thangka painters divide all the pigments needed for Thangka painting into nine categories: soil, stone, water, fire, wood, grass, flowers, bones and gems.
The pigments belonging to the soil are: white clay, southern alkali, diamond clay, red clay.
The pigments belonging to the stone category include: silver ore, chalcopyrite, mica, lapis lazuli, patina, cinnabar, tortoiseshell, ochre, etc.
The pigments belonging to the water category include: Huang Dan, Sang Zhure, Indigo Indigo, Iron Indigo and so on.
Pigments belonging to the fire category include ink, arsenic, realgar, etc.
The pigments belonging to the wood category include: mangrove, golden tree, birch, hard tree, purple stalk and so on.
The pigments belonging to the grass category include: Luxgrass, Coptis chinensis, Pennisetum, amaranth and so on.
The pigments belonging to the flower category include: wild chrysanthemum, birch flower, primrose, etc.
Pigments belonging to bones are: clams, conch, keel and so on.
The pigments belonging to gems are: gold, silver, dzi, coral, turquoise and so on.
These natural pigments can also be classified in terms of hue:
White category: white clay, southern alkali, diamond clay, conch, mica, etc.
Yellow category: arsenic, realgar, Luxgrass, Coptis chinensis, golden tree, wild chrysanthemum, birch bark, etc.
Red category: cinnabar, amaranth, red clay, etc.
Blue type: lapis lazuli, blue indigo type, hard tree, etc.
Green category: patina, patina, malachite, etc.
Black category: pot smoke, coal stone, etc.
Purple category: mulberry pearl fever, tortoiseshell stone, ochre, purple tree, etc.
All pigments are divided into mineral pigments and plant pigments based on their material properties.
Commonly used mineral pigments are: Renbu white clay (white), cinnabar (red), lapis lazuli (azurite), malachite (stone green), realgar/orpiment (yellow), Huang Dan (orange).
Plant pigments are commonly used in cyan, rouge, etc. The production process of plant pigments is simpler than that of mineral pigments. First collect flowers and trees or bark, wash and soak or boil to obtain different colors of juice, then evaporate to make colored pills.