Features of Murals in Tombs During Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties
The structure of the Wei-Jin fresco tomb follows the shape of the late Eastern Han Dynasty, and the image of the fresco has the most characteristic of the time. The tail is the support of the scholars of metaphysics since the beginning of the Cao Wei Dynasty, so the chat was also called “the talk” at that time. Under the banner of social fashion, the image of characters holding the tail entered the tombs and became a popular new subject in the murals of Jin tombs.
The archaeologically discovered statue of the owner of the tomb has the tomb of Huo Chengsi in Zhaotong, Yunnan, in the south, the Western Jin tomb in Bajiao Village, Shijingshan, Beijing, and the Eastern Jin Tomb in Shangwangjia Village, Liaoyang, in the north, and even the Korean Peninsula. The Tomb of Dongshou in the 13th year of Dongjin Yonghe (AD 357) in Anyue, North Korea, and the tomb of Yonglek, the king of Gwanggaeto in Dexingli, the 18th year (AD 408), are painted with a statue of the tomb owner Miao Tan. The spread range. At the time of the turmoil of the Jin Dynasty, the Central Plains were stumbling, and a large number of people migrated to Hexi and Liaodong, and the atmosphere of tomb decoration in the Central Plains also moved to these areas. The fresco tombs of this period have been found more concentrated in the northeast and northwest, along the Hexi Corridor to Turpan in the northwest, and Liaoyang and Gaogouli fresco tombs in the northeast.
Nearly 50 tombs with frescoes in the Wei and Jin Dynasties have been discovered in the Hexi Corridor. Most of them are built with small bricks. The fresco tombs are represented by the Jin tombs in Dingjiazha, Jiuquan. Tomb No. 5 is the most well-preserved large-scale fresco tomb in the Sixteen Kingdoms period. The procedure of painting a brick tomb is relatively simple. Usually it is to paint the bottom with white powder on the brick surface, then outline the outline with ink lines, and then fill in colors such as ocher, vermilion and stone yellow. The strokes are loose, the colors are simple, and the shapes are rough. And expressive. The Hexi Wei and Jin fresco tombs are most concentrated in the central and western parts of the Hexi Corridor. They start from Wuwei in the east and reach Dunhuang in the west. The artistic level is highest in places such as Jiuquan, Jiayuguan and Dunhuang.
The middle reaches of the Yalu River and the Hunjiang River Basin are the birthplace of the Goguryeo nation. There are eight important mural tombs discovered by Japanese scholars in the early 20th century, including the horned mound, the dancing mound, and the turtle mound. The second concentrated discovery of the Goguryeo Tombs in Ji’an was after the 1960s. Chinese archaeologists have investigated and unearthed 19 Goguryeo ancient tombs, more than 810, and re-cleaned Wuhou Tomb No. 5, Donggou Tomb No. 17, and Donggou Tomb No. 12 that were opened by the Japanese. Many new beautiful places were discovered. Murals.
There are still many remains of the Jin Dynasty fresco tombs in the capital of Liaodong County (Liaoyang, Liaoning), represented by Wangjiacun and Sandaohao Tombs No. 1 and 2. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the Qianyan, Houyan, and Beiyan regimes were successively established here, and the political and cultural center gradually turned to the capital city of Longcheng (now Chaoyang, Liaoning). Sanyan is a regime established by the Murong clan of Xianbei and the Feng clan of the Xianbei Han nationality, and its cultural tradition is different from that of the Han nationality. Mural tombs include Tomb No. 1 in Beimiao Village (Goumenzi Jin Tomb) in Chaoyang, Tomb No. 1 in Dapingfang, Tomb in Yuantaizi Village in Shishitaiyingzi Township, and Tomb of Feng Sufu in Beipiao.
During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, due to the political role of the local aristocratic families, the regional color of culture became more and more obvious. After the Jin Dynasty moved south, due to its geographical climate and social customs in the south, the tombs were mostly painted with mold-printed bricks. As the Xianbei nationality entered the Central Plains in the northern central plains, the old burial system and burial customs in the Han and Jin Dynasties are also changing. An outstanding feature of the tombs of the Northern Dynasty is the simplification of the structure of the tombs. The complex multi-chamber tombs of the Eastern Han Dynasty were replaced by single-chamber tombs with long slopes. In the tombs of the royal family and nobles in the late Northern Dynasties, huge wall murals appeared in the tombs, and the murals in the tombs showed the themes of the tomb owners and their husbands. After the division of the Northern Wei Dynasty, the tomb murals can be roughly divided into two areas: Western Wei-Northern Zhou and Eastern Wei-Northern Qi. The artistic level of Eastern Wei-Northern Qi murals is relatively high.
The Northern Wei Dynasty moved its capital three times. In the thirty-ninth year of Liwei (258 AD), the capital Shengle (now Inner Mongolia and Linger) was established, and the capital was built in Pingcheng in the 9th year of Tianxing by Emperor Tao Bagui (398 AD). Shanxi Datong), Emperor Xiaowen moved the capital to Luoyang in the 17th year of Taihe (AD 493). In the three places where the capital was built, no murals have been found in the tombs of the emperors that have been excavated, and there are few mural tombs found around the capital.
The Western Wei Dynasty and the Northern Zhou Dynasty moved their capitals to Chang’an, and murals are rarely found in the tombs of emperors and nobles. There is no mural painting in the Xiaoling Tomb of Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in Xianyang, Shaanxi. The places where the Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty mural tombs were discovered in Shaanxi are Hujiagou, Dizhang Bay and Huaxian in Xianyang. The specifications of the tombs are not high, and the preservation of the murals is not satisfactory. The mural tomb of the Northern Zhou Dynasty that attracted the attention of the academic circles is the tomb of the General Zhuguo, the Governor of the State of Zhuguo, the Governor of the State of Zhu, the Governor of Yuanzhou, and the Lixian of Hexi Gong in the fourth year of Tianhe of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in Guyuan, Ningxia. This is a single-chamber tomb with a long tomb. Distributed in the tomb passages and chambers, the existing murals do not reveal the guard of honor or the life scenes of the tomb owner. Only the samurai on the two walls of the tomb and the maidservants on the walls of the tomb are single and independent pictures.
Ci County, Hebei Province, where Yecheng, the capital of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty, is home to Cao Cao’s Seventy-two Mystical Tombs in folklore. Archeologically excavated in 1957, Jiangwu City Tomb No. 1 and Mural Tomb No. 56 belong to two of them. The result proved to be Mural tomb of the Northern Qi Dynasty. After the 1970s, high-standard tombs of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, the Northern Qi Dynasty, and the nobles were discovered in Cixian successively, such as the tomb of General Huqi of the Northern Qi Dynasty, the tomb of Zhaozhou Governor Yaojun, the tomb of Wenzhao King Gaorun of the Northern Qi Dynasty, the tomb of Princess Ruru of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, and Wanzhang Tomb of the Northern Qi Dynasty and so on.
Taiyuan, Shanxi, closely related to the Gaoqi regime in Yecheng, was originally the birthplace of Gao Huan and the second political center of Northern Qi. A number of high-standard fresco tombs of the Northern Qi Dynasty have also been discovered here since the 1970s. The tombs of Dingzhou Governor and Shunyang King Kudiluo were discovered in 1973; the tombs of Prime Minister You and the King Lou Rui of Dongan County were excavated in 1979; The mural tomb of the late Northern Qi Dynasty discovered in Jinsheng Village in the southern suburbs of Taiyuan in 2000; the tomb of the Northern Qi General Xu Xianxiu discovered in 2000 by Wang Jiafeng in the eastern suburbs of Taiyuan. The mural tombs discovered in Taiyuan are slightly lower in specifications than those in Yecheng, but the artistic level is not inferior, and can compete with the Beiqi mural tombs in Ci County, Hebei Province.
The Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty were both short-established. The literature about the art of the Northern Qi Dynasty did not have more physical preservation and spread, and the understanding of its appearance was not very clear for a long time. The Eastern Wei Dynasty and Northern Qi mural tombs centered on Cixian and Taiyuan The systematic discovery not only fills the gaps in the art of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty, but also provides important clues for the observation of the cultural relics system and art sources of the Sui and Tang Dynasties.