Why is Goguryeo so hard to fight

Goguryeo became famous because of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty and Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Yang of the Sui fought Goguryeo three times, directly losing millions of soldiers, and indirectly caused countless losses, and eventually led to the collapse of the Sui Dynasty. Tang Taizong attacked Goguryeo. Although he had made great achievements in the battle, but he had been in Anshi for three months, but he had not achieved all his achievements. He sighed, “I am trapped by the people of the world, trapped by the barbarians of the world”, and said, “Wei Zhengruo is here. , It doesn’t make me work.

Under the background of these two famous emperors, Goguryeo appeared to shine, so that this ancient Chinese minority was recognized by the Koreans as his ancestor and used him as his capital to show off.

In the second war between Sui and Goguryeo, Ulji Bunde defeated the Sui army in Sashui by enticing the enemy to go deep. As a result, the Korean army set up the “Ulji Freedom Medal” to commemorate Ulji Bunde; Lee Semin Only before they captured Anshi, the Koreans made the movie “Anshicheng”, boasting that Li Shimin was shot blind by the Anshi defender and was forced to surrender to Goguryeo. They also ceded the land north of the Yangtze River.

In fact, there were two emperors who fought against Goguryeo in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. One was Emperor Wen of Sui Yang Jian. In order to avenge the invasion of Goguryeo, Emperor Wen sent 300,000 amphibious troops to attack Goguryeo in the 18th year of Emperor Kaihuang (598 AD). Due to weather, disease, etc. The loss ratio is as high as nine out of ten. But Goguryeo was awed by the might of the Sui dynasty and gave in. The second is Emperor Gaozong Li Zhi of Tang Dynasty. On the basis of fully absorbing the experience of the previous dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty spent 14 years before and after, and finally eliminated Goguryeo in September of the first year of the Zongzhang (668 AD).

Goguryeo resisted the army of Sui and Tang for 70 years. Among them, countless shining generals such as Tathagata, Li Ji, Li Daozong, Xue Wanche, Su Dingfang, Qi Yuanheli, Liu Rengui, Xue Rengui, etc. all fought on the battlefield against Goguryeo The young general even died on the battlefield, but there has never been a glorious record similar to Li Jing’s destruction of the Turks. So why is Goguryeo so hard to fight?

First, there are many strong cities in Goguryeo, and they are good at defending.

The territory of Goguryeo includes a large area of ​​northeastern my country. Among the hills of Liaodong, there are nearly 200 mountain fortresses around river valleys and roads. At the same time, across the Yalu River, among the mountains in northern Korea, there are other half of such fortresses…

Goguryeo’s mountains are dangerous and dangerous. Naturally, they are different from the Central Plains and the grassland areas, which can be used for strategy, and the battle will determine the universe. This is similar to my country’s Sichuan region. Shu is separated by the Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains, so it is easy to form a separatist regime. Liu Bei and Zhuge Liang rely on a small place in Shu. Although the “state is trapped and the people are vacant”, the Central Plains army, which has been able to resist Cao Wei for decades, can be a similar example.

Cao Cao conquered Wuhuan from the north, and was calm in one fell swoop, but sent troops to Hanzhong, regarded as “Heavenly Hell”, and returned to Shu without success. Zhong Hui will destroy Shu and be blocked by Jian Pavilion. If Deng Ai hadn’t sneaked into Yinping, he would almost fall short. This can be regarded as an important reference for the defeat of Goguryeo in the Sui and Tang Dynasties.

Second, the weather is unfavorable.

Due to the weather, the favorable time for the Sui and Tang forces to attack Liaodong was only from February to March to June and July, which was a short period of four or five months. Duan Wenzhen, Shangshu of the Ministry of War of the Sui Dynasty, commented: “The water will fall on the side, and it must not be flooded late… If you decide from time to time, you will escape from the Qiulin, and you will be deeply hindered. The army is exhausted and the strong enemy is in front. Decision is not the best policy.”

In this regard, the famous historian Chen Yinke said: “The rainy season between Ji-Liao in northeastern China is between June and July in the lunar calendar, and the period from August to September to February and March of the lunar calendar is a cold period. Therefore, the force of the Guanzhong distance is used. And if you want to subdue Goryeo to capture the land of Liaodong, you must win a complete victory after the freezing period has passed and the rainy season has not arrived.” If you subtract the cost of the marching and class divisions, the time that can be used for attacking will only be shorter. Therefore, this increased the difficulty of conquering Goguryeo. Not only that, once the strong city is difficult to overcome and the logistics are insufficient, the army of the Central Plains is easily defeated.

Taking the place of Shu as an analogy again, in the period of the Three Kingdoms, Wei’s attack on Shu was often due to climatic reasons and eventually returned without success. In the fourth year of Taihe (230 years), Wei Guoda Sima Cao Zhen attacked Hanzhong from the Meridian Road. During the rainy season, the plank road was cut off. He only walked halfway in a month, and finally had to retreat. (“Three Kingdoms”: It was sent to Chang’an in August and entered from the south of the Meridian Road…. It will be rained heavily for more than 30 days, or the plank road will be cut off, and the edict will return to the army.)

Third, logistics is difficult.

Due to geography, it has increased the logistical pressure on the army. Once the food is exhausted, the army will retreat in the slightest, and the army will be annihilated in the worst case. In the first five years (244), the general of Wei State, Cao Shuang, attacked Shu, but due to difficult transportation and lack of materials and food; the general of Shu Han took the lead in defending the mountains and was in a dilemma.

Sima Yi blamed him and said: “Emperor Wu re-entered Hanzhong, he was almost defeated, and the monarch knew it. Today Xingping road is extremely dangerous, and Shu has taken the lead; if he does not win a battle, he will retreat and be defeated, and the army will be overthrown. “In the end, Cao Shuang had to withdraw his troops. There were many casualties and wasted during the pass. It is precisely because of the difficulty of transporting military resources across the Qinling Mountains that Cao Cao called Hanzhong a “chicken rib” and left this famous historical allusion.

However, although Sichuan is difficult and dangerous, after all, it is relatively close to the hinterland of the Central Plains and worthy of military use. However, the Korean region is too far away from the hinterland of the Central Plains, and logistics is particularly inconvenient. Therefore, Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang finally gave up North Korea and included it in the 15 “unconquered countries”. China, oppose future generations to move them. In fact, let alone the feudal dynasty, the mechanized division known as “armed to the teeth” by the United States during the Korean War, faced the mountainous terrain of the North Korean region, still fought very hard, and came back in despair.

So, after understanding these, we will understand why Goguryeo is so hard to fight!