Sumer Civilization

Sumer Civilization” is an ancient civilization that originated in Mesopotamia. which the origin It is located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Sumerian civilization stood out for its language, government, architecture, and arts. The Sumerians are recognized as the creators of many civilizations.

The Sumerian civilization existed for about 2,000 years before it was invaded by Babylon in 2004 BC.

For the history of this civilization It appeared more than 6,000 years ago.

The land of Sumer originated from the human settlement of that period 4500-4000 BC. And it is possible that it may have happened before that again.

The people of this land from the beginning were the Ubaid people, famous for their advances in fields such as farming, animal husbandry, weaving, craftsmanship.

The Ubed community Many villages and towns were built.

Later, a nation known as the Sumerians came to occupy the region in 3000 BC.

The Sumerian culture is a mixture of many city-states. In the period of its peak at about 2,800 BC. The Sumerian city had a population of between 40,000-80,000 people. The city has long, strong walls.

Each Sumerian or Sumerian city-state There will be a strong, densely defensive wall. with a village located outside

In terms of language, Sumer is one of the oldest languages ​​in the world, and archaeological evidence indicates that Sumer It has existed since 3,100 BC.

Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian around 2000 BC. But it remained a cuneiform writing language for more than 2,000 years.

wedge-shaped letters, carved on stone or stone slabs old age It can be traced back to more than 4000 BC and later applied to the Akkadian people. and spread outside the kingdom of Mesopotamia

writing various writings It was one of the advancements of the Sumerians. Makes many records, with the oldest recorded law. It can be traced back to 2,400 BC.

architecture There were many structures during the Sumer era, including art, especially carvings. was widespread in the Sumerian era.

In addition, the Sumerians also had a medicinal production system based on witchcraft and herbs. But still have knowledge of the separation of chemical elements from natural matter.

In addition, the Sumerians were known for their knowledge of anatomy. Surgical devices were also discovered in the Sumer archaeological site.

In other fields such as engineering, the Sumerians are also known for their excellence.

The Sumerians built a canal to prevent flooding. and also built a system to irrigate the river including the construction of several dams

Sumerian engineering talent This led to the belief that the Sumerians were excellent at math. especially catching and counting time One minute equals 60 seconds and 60 minutes equals one hour. It is related to the Sumerians.

in the land of sumer School is a place where common and was the first land with a school disseminate knowledge to the public

The Sumerians also have a record for many future generations to study. But what made the Sumerians famous It’s about “poetry”.

Sumerian poetry influenced writings in Greece and Roman times. including some parts of the Bible It is rooted in works during the Sumerian period.

for the administration The first ruling class in recorded history was the “First Dynasty of Kish” with the first rulers. The one recorded is “Etana of Kish”.

Etana of Kish is regarded as the one who united the land.

Around 2600 BC. have a fight compete for power between the royal family and various ruling classes

first conflict It began with the Kingdom of Awan” taking control and dismissing the monarchs in the Sumerian region, before power was restored to the Kish dynasty.

Then there were battles between the various ruling classes. Take turns occupying power between different factions.

In 2004 BC The Elamites invaded Ur. which is one of the Sumerian city-states meanwhile The Amorites began to advance beyond the Sumerians.

Soon, the elamite ruling class began to take an interest in the Amorite culture. and was born into the kingdom of Babylon and it marked the end of the Sumerian civilization.