Religion and Political Power: Political and Cultural Ideas in the Evolution of Goguryeo Religion
1. Confucianism and Taoism of primitive religion
Goguryeo has always maintained the worship of sacrifices, gods of the sun, gods of sweat, etc. of the Korean survivors. Later, with the influence of new religions and cultural thoughts brought about by the exchanges with the Donghu and Han people in the frontier and the migration of foreign populations, the primitive religious beliefs of Goguryeo began to gradually move towards a new path of Confucianization, Taoism and Buddhism.
Koguryo has frequent contacts with the Han people. Among them, the most influential Central Plains culture is Confucian etiquette. Confucianism pursues holy virtues and benevolence. It pays more attention to human relations and morality. It teaches the relationship between kings and ministers and the unity of nature and man through Confucian classics. These Confucian ideas were used by the high-ranking class of royal power and nobility to serve the ruling class with these ritual and religious regulations and spiritual laws.
With the Confucian concept of “blessing the people, being the king, and being the teacher”, he wins the hearts of the people, and achieves the purpose of improving and consolidating the royal power from the political etiquette behavior and psychology.
After the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the exchanges between Goguryeo and the Central Plains became more frequent, and there were more and more acts of tributary trade and pilgrimage offerings between the regimes. Goguryeo accepted the canonization of the Central Plains dynasty, continuously absorbed and learned Confucian culture, and pursued the ritual spirit of the Confucian legal system. And compliant. They honour the kings of the Central Plains and retreat from the worship of the gods, which is the secondary worship of the gods, in order to avoid conflicts with the Confucian etiquette norms in the Central Plains, and also allow the political etiquette ideas to enlighten the people and make the royal power sacred.
During the Han and Wei dynasties, war troops, ethnic envoys, trade merchants, and ethnic migration due to social unrest enabled Taoism to spread. The Han population in the Central Plains migrated to Goguryeo and other places in the northeast frontier to escape the war, which promoted the exchange and integration of the Han and ethnic minorities. During the Tang Dynasty, the rulers of the Central Plains believed in Taoism and deified Laozi. The frequent tribute between Goguryeo and the Central Plains strengthened the connection between the Liaodong region and the inland north and south. The population movement has promoted the cultural exchanges between the two ethnic groups and the spread of Taoism.
Taoism naturally integrates alchemy and philosophy. It is closer to the common people and evolved from folk beliefs. It guards the real interests of the people and the people. It is deeply loved by the people and has a solid mass foundation. With the introduction of Taoism into Goguryeo, the doctrine and incantation of Taoism began to penetrate into all classes, and gradually merged and transformed with primitive religions and Confucianism and Buddhism, because it adapted to the political needs of feudal rulers and gained the support of social classes. , And then mature.