From the 4th century to the 6th century, the direct producers of the majority of the population in Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla on the Korean peninsula were the “private households” or “people” as free people. The “Three Kingdoms: Weizhi Biography of Goguryeo” clearly stated that the class relations and the mode of exploitation in the early days of the Goguryeo regime were: Of”.
Coming from a household is a national peasant who has his own individual family and private economy, protects his personal freedom, and is exploited by state taxes and servitude. “Zhou Shu·Koguryo Biography” stated that the taxation system of Goguryeo is “the tax is paid on silk cloth and millet, and the amount is lost by the difference between the rich and the poor.”
“The Biography of the Northern History of Koguryo” further mentions that the amount of exploitation is “tenants, one stone for each household, seven fights for each household, and five fights for each household.” Private households were also oppressed and humiliated by the nobles. The inscription on the King Haotai stele mentions that the Goguryeo royal family reduced some civilians to tomb-keeping slaves (“take the old people far and near to guard the tombs and sweep the tombs”). Guard the tomb.
The exploitation and oppression of the state and the nobles made the lives of the people very difficult. “Although they work hard, they are not enough to feed themselves” and “the silkworm farmers are not enough to provide for themselves.” The governments of Silla and Baekje also implemented an exploitative system of expropriating rents and adjustments on the civilian households who are farmers in the country. When this kind of enrollment reaches an unbearable degree, there will be a large number of people in exile. There are records of hunger, poverty, bankruptcy and exile in the “Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms: The Book of Goguryeo”. In 399, King Baekje Asin prepared to attack Goguryeo. “The army was conscripted, the people were struggling, and they went to Silla more and their household registration dropped sharply.”
There are several records in the “Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms” that the Silla and Baekje governments adjusted their policies to exempt rent. For example, the “Silla Benji” stated that the Naibuni teacher “rented for one year after another” in July of this forty-two year. In the sixteenth year of King Zhenxing, the king “from to Hanshan, the training center Jingzhou county rents and adjusts for one year.” “Baekje Benji” stated that King Guer “fifteen years of drought in spring and summer.
In winter, people are hungry, giving relief to warehouses, and renting for another year.” The state-owned land cultivated by the country’s peasants was also distributed to the nobles as food towns. In 532, when Silla merged with the Kingdom of Jinguan, Jin Chouhai, the lord of its kingdom, was granted “the homeland as a food town”. This system of giving food towns is also popular among the nobles of the country.