In a country like the southern foot of the Himalayas, it has repeatedly repelled invading powerful enemies, showing extraordinary resilience, and the invaders have not only lost their troops, but also suffered heavy losses, and even went into decline. People call this nasty country the “Imperial Cemetery”, which is both a tribute to this country and a condolence to the invaders. It is Afghanistan, a small country in Central Asia.
Tianshi: I am in charge of my turf. The outcome of a war is never a simple addition or subtraction of the forces of both sides, but the result of a combination of factors. Afghanistan is located in central and western Asia with an area of 647,500 square kilometers and a population of 36.8 million. In 2018, the country’s GDP was 19.363 billion U.S. dollars. It is one of the least developed countries in the world.
Legend has it that when Zhang Qian cleared the Western Regions, the westbound destination was in the “Blue City” 23 kilometers west of Mazar-i-Sharif, the capital of Balkh Province in northern Afghanistan. In 399 AD, Faxian, a high-ranking monk of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, went to India to seek Dharma. When he passed through the Pamirs, he sighed: “There are no birds on the top and no beasts on the bottom. The desolation of Afghanistan at the time.
With the prosperity of the Silk Road, Afghanistan has gradually become an important country along the Silk Road. In 628 AD, Xuanzang, a high-ranking monk of the Tang Dynasty, once again traveled westward to study the scriptures. He recorded in “The Western Regions of the Tang Dynasty”: “The country of Jiabishi is more than a thousand miles on Thursday, with snow mountains to the north, and three hills in the north. The capital city of the country is more than ten miles away. Yigumai, multi-fruit trees, good horses and tulips. Exotic and exotic goods, gather in this country.” This scene is obviously different from what Faxian saw. With the Silk Road as the link, Afghanistan’s agriculture and animal husbandry Great progress has been made in economic and trade. Afghanistan has become a hub linking China, India and West Asia, and is known as the “crossroads of civilization.”
The so-called “success and failure also fail”, the value of Afghanistan has attracted the attention of major powers. In history, it was successively invaded, occupied or controlled by the Persian Empire, the Arab Empire, the Tsar Empire, the Mongol Empire, and the Datang Empire. In modern times, Britain, the former Soviet Union and the United States have set foot in Afghanistan. Return. The social and natural environment of Afghanistan is not only a coveted object by many big countries, but also a goal defended by the local people.
The reason is that Afghanistan occupies the “time of day” advantage. The local area has been infringed by aliens for a long time, the people have retained the tradition of resisting their opponents, and these people are familiar with the situation in Afghanistan, so the home game naturally has the advantage. Ninety-nine percent of the people in Afghanistan are Muslims, mainly Sunni and Shiites. Iran and Pakistan, both Islamic countries, will not sit back and watch the suffering of the faithful. Therefore, Afghanistan is not alone in the war.
In terms of tactics, the Afghan people are well versed in the essence of guerrilla warfare. When major powers come to the region, they often fall into the predicament of guerrilla warfare, and even the well-equipped modern US military is helpless. The war against the Taliban has ended for six years, and the US military still has 14,000 troops stationed there. It is really a flowing empire and an iron-fighted Afghanistan. The complicated situation has provided refuge to Afghanistan and created a favorable atmosphere for the “imperial cemetery”.
Geographical location: a single spark can set a prairie fire. The reason Afghanistan is able to counterattack a strong enemy is because of its role. It is not only the intersection of Central Asia and South Asia, but also a transit point between East Asia and West Asia, and is known as the “Heart of Asia”. The mountainous plateau area accounts for 4/5 of the country’s total area, with an average elevation of about 1,000 meters. The country’s largest Hindu Kush mountain range runs diagonally from the southeast to the northwest.
The local climate is continental, with four distinct seasons, dry climate, large temperature difference between day and night, and annual rainfall of only 240 mm. In winter, the temperature in the northern region drops below -30°C. In summer, the temperature in the eastern city of Jalalabad is as high as 49°C. The harsh climate environment has honed the Afghans’ perseverance and hard-working character. When the country is invaded, Afghans can usually withstand the pressure and insist on fighting.
The mountainous territory has shaped the unique social structure of Afghanistan. There are 398 tribes scattered throughout the country. They are self-contained and relatively independent. The elders who manipulate the tribe have great prestige and reputation and represent the authority of a region. The loyalty of tribe members to elders is much higher than that of national leaders. The modern and popular administrative system obviously does not conform to the traditional values of Afghanistan and is resisted and disgusted by the locals. Therefore, the influence of the country of Afghanistan is obviously lower than that of tribal cohesion.
The countries that invaded Afghanistan thought that occupation meant domination. This move caused dissatisfaction among many tribes. They rose to the ground and attacked everywhere. The occupying forces were struggling to cope with them, their logistics was limited, and the pressure surged, and they fell into the Arab “People’s War”. The political views between the occupying forces and the tribes are different, and it is difficult to reach an agreement. Therefore, the gunfire of resistance has not subsided.