Skip to content

Cardamom (Ginger cardamom)

Cardamom (scientific name: Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) is a perennial herb of the ginger family and cardamom genus. The rhizome is elongated and creeping, and the base of the stem is slightly enlarged. The leafy stem and calyx grow separately. The plant is 5 meters high, with 2 rows of leaves, the stem basal sheath is reddish-purple, and the margin is membranous; the leaves are lanceolate, 60-70 cm long, 15-20 cm wide, apex and tail tip, hairless on both sides, and round tongue.

The flower spike is a panicle, the flowers on the branches are arranged in a scorpion-tailed cyme, the bracts are arranged in a tile-like arrangement, light green, the calyx is cylindrical, the corolla tube is slightly longer than the calyx tube, the fruit cortex is tough, and can be self-divided. The base of the fruit top protruding, with concave stalk marks at the base, and each fruit contains 15-20 seeds. The seeds are long ovoid or 3-4 faces, about 3-4 mm long and 3 mm thick. The surface is orange-brown to black-brown, the back is slightly protruding, the ventral surface is grooved, and the outer surface is colorless film-like aril, cross section White. Strong aroma, spicy and slightly bitter taste.

Cardamom is native to southern India and Sri Lanka, where it grows wild in forests at an altitude of 800-1500 meters. It has a tropical monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 24-27°C and annual rainfall of 1500-2300 mm. A warm, humid, shaded, wind- and frost-free environment is required, and sandy, fertile, moist and well-draining loam is required. It is planted in large quantities in India, southern Asia, Indonesia, Guatemala and other places. There are introduced species in Hainan, China.

The main consumption of cardamom is its seed flavor, and it is also used in products such as essential oils, oleoresins and tinctures. After the seeds are crushed, they can be leached with organic solvents to obtain oleoresin, or they can be leached and concentrated with ethanol to obtain tinctures. The fruit can be used as medicine. It tastes pungent, slightly sweet, and tastes bitter after digestion. Moist, warm, dry and sharp. Invigorate the stomach and eliminate food, warm the kidney and strengthen yang. Indications of cold stomach disease, waist and leg soreness caused by cold kidney, frequent urination, closed urination, renal failure, etc.

Name: Cardamom (小豆蔻) กระวาน
Alias: Triangle cardamom, Indian cardamom, cardamom, round cardamom, cardamom
Boundary: Plant kingdom
Named person and date: (L.) Maton, 1811 [2]
Scientific name: Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton
Food name: Cardamom
Content reference: Approximately the content per 100 grams of food
Energy: 311 kcal

Morphological characteristics

Perennial herb with elongated and creeping rhizomes and slightly enlarged stem base. The leafy stem and calyx grow separately. The plant is 5 meters high, with 2 rows of leaves, the stem basal sheath is reddish-purple, and the margin is membranous; the leaves are lanceolate, 60-70 cm long, 15-20 cm wide, apex and tail tip, hairless on both sides, and round tongue.

The flower spikes are panicles, the flowers on the branches are arranged in a scorpion-tailed cyme, the bracts are covered with tiles, light green, the calyx is cylindrical, the corolla tube is slightly longer than the calyx tube, the lobes are white, the lip is oval, There are purple veins.

The stamen septum has no appendages. Fruit long oval, 1-2 cm long, 1 cm diameter, Kenzo wane, and a fine vertical lines, the surface light brown to gray-green, pericarp quality and tough, since the crack can, top fruit projection plinth , There are concave stalk marks at the base, and each fruit contains 15-20 seeds. The seeds are long ovoid or 3-4 faces, about 3-4 mm long and 3 mm thick. The surface is orange-brown to black-brown, the back is slightly protruding, the ventral surface is grooved, and the outer surface is colorless film-like aril, cross section White. Strong aroma, spicy and slightly bitter taste.

Habitat

Cardamom is native to southern India and Sri Lanka, where it grows wild in forests at an altitude of 800-1500 meters. It has a tropical monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 24-27°C and annual rainfall of 1500-2300 mm. A warm, humid, sheltered, wind- and frost-free environment is required, and sandy, fertile, moist and well-draining loam is required. It is planted in large quantities in India, southern Asia, Indonesia, Guatemala and other places. There are introduced species in Hainan, China.

Commodity cardamom is mainly produced in Sri Lanka and southern India. India is mainly distributed in Kerala, My sore, Madras and other 3 states. Most of them are wild products, and they are also cultivated on a large scale. Guatemala began to introduce species in 1920, and commodities have been exported. India is the main exporter of cardamom and one of the important economic plants for India’s export earnings. India’s export volume accounts for 80% of the world’s trade volume and exports approximately 25,000 tons per year, while its annual domestic consumption does not exceed 1,653 over exports. . Other countries such as Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Malaysia, Indonesia and other countries also export a small amount of products.

Main value

Economy:

The consumption of cardamom is mainly the original flavor of its seeds, and it is also used in products such as essential oils, oleoresins and tinctures. After the seeds are crushed, the essential oils are extracted by steam distillation with a yield of 3.5-8.0%; it is mainly produced in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The world’s annual oil production is about 4-5 tons. After the seeds are crushed, they can be leached with organic solvents to obtain oleoresin, or they can be leached and concentrated with ethanol to obtain tinctures.

Medicinal:

The fruit can be used as medicine, with a pungent, slightly sweet taste, and a bitter taste after digestion. Moist, warm, dry and sharp. Invigorate the stomach and eliminate food, warm the kidney and strengthen yang. Indications of cold stomach disease, waist and leg soreness caused by cold kidney, frequent urination, closed urination, renal failure, etc.

%d bloggers like this: